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【书评】今年是火星探测器的最佳发射窗口

摘要: 2020年可谓“探火扎堆年”。

作者: 彼得里·劳尼艾宁 

出版时间: 2020年5月

“带彩票平台去火星”

4yue29ri,meiguohangtianju(nasa)xuanbujiangzhixing“huoxing2020”renwudehuoxingzhishengjimingmingwei“jizhi”hao(ingenuity)。zheigemingchenglaiziyalabamazhoudezhongxueshengwanizha·lupani,tadetiyicongquanmei2.8wanmingzhongxiaoxueshengdetougaozhongshengchu。

erzaiciqiande3yue5ri,nasaxuanbuxinyidaihuoxingchedingmingwei“yili”hao(perseverance),zheigemingchengtongyanglaiziyiming13suidezhongxuesheng。

anzhuangzai“yili”haohuoxingcheshangde“jizhi”haohuoxingzhishengji tu/nasa

“huoxing2020”shinasamuqianzuizhongyaodelianggexiangmuzhiyi(lingyigeshishangyongzairenfeichuan)。genjujihua,“jizhi”haojiangzai7、8yuejianyu“yili”haoyiqicongkanaweilaerjiaokongjunjidifasheshengkong,yuji2021nian2yue18ridengluhuoxingchidaoyibeideyezeluoyunshikeng。

“jizhi”haoderenwushizaihuoxingshangjinxingshoucidonglifeixingceshidejishuyanshi,“yili”haozefuzexunzhaocengjingcunzaiguodeshengmingjixiangbingshoujiturangyangpin。zheixieyangpinjiangchucunzaimifengshebeizhongliuzaihuoxingbiaomian,dengdaijinhoudaodahuoxingdehangtianqidaihuidiqiu。

彩票平台2019nian5yue,nasacengjubanguoyici“songmingzishanghuoxing”(send your name to mars)dehuodong。hangtianaihaozhezaihuodongwangzhantijiaozijidexingmingheguojihou,huidedaoyizhangxitongshengchengdehuoxing“dengjipai”。

zheicihuodongdecanyuzhechaoguo1093wan,renshuzuiduode4geguojiashituerqi、yindu、meiguo、zhongguo。canyuzhedexingmingbeishikezaiguixinpianshang,jiangsui“yili”haoyiqiqianwanghuoxing。“dengjipai”youxiajiaohaitebiezhuming,bencifeixingleijidelichengshushi504 668 791qianmi。

Quick Facts

  • fashechuangkou: 2020nian7yue17rizhi8yue5ri

  • fashedidian: kanaweilaerjiaokong: 2021nian2yue18ri(yuji)

  • zheludidian: huoxingyezeluoyunshikeng

火星“登机牌” 图/NASA

彩票平台huoxing“dengjipai” tu/nasa

今年夏天是火星探测器的最佳发射窗口

彩票平台chu“huoxing2020”wai,jinnianhaiyoulianggehuoxingtancerenwuxushidaifa,jizhongguode“tianwenyihao”renwuhealianqiude“xiwanghao”renwu,2020niankewei“tanhuozhaduinian”。yuanyinhenjiandan: jinnianxiatianshihuoxingtanceqidezuijiafashechuangkou。

彩票平台fashechuangkouzhisuoyizhongyao,shiyinweizaiciqijianfashetanceqinengjieshengranliao。bijingtanceqidekongjianyouxian,xuyaoxuanzeranliaoxiaohaozuishaodefangshiqianwanghuoxing。

彩票平台weici,tanceqixianzaidiqiufujinjiasu,jinruchengwei“huomanzhuanyiguidao”detuoyuanguidao;daodahuoxingfujinshizaijiansu,beihuoxingbuhuohouhuanraoqiyunxing。zheiyangyilai,tuzhongzhixujinxingliangcituijincaozuojiunengdaodahuoxing,congerzuidaxiandujianshaoleranliaoxiaohao。

彩票平台youyutanceqiyanhuomanzhuanyiguidaocongdiqiuqianwanghuoxingdehangxingshijianshibubiande,yincizaixuanzetanceqidefasheshijianshi,diqiuyuhuoxingdexiangduiweizhibixumanzuyigeyaoqiu: huomanzhuanyiguidaodeyuanridianzhenghaoyuhuoxingdegongzhuanguidaoxiangjiao。

yejiushishuo,dangtanceqidaodatuoyuanguidaodeyuanridianshi,huoxingyinggaiqiaqiao“deng”zaineili。zheiyangdejihuidayuemei26geyuechuxianyici,ruguocuoguozezhinengzaideng26geyue。

zhuyi,tanceqidefashechuangkoubingbushidiqiuyuhuoxingxiangjuzuijindeshihou,yinweitanceqibushiyanzhixian、ershiyantuoyuanguidao(huomanzhuanyiguidao)qianwanghuoxingde。

从地球到火星的霍曼转移 图/科普中国

congdiqiudaohuoxingdehuomanzhuanyi tu/kepuzhongguo

zaihaopingruchaodetaikongmoniyouxi《kanbalataikongjihua》(ksp)zhong,wanjiaxuyaozhangwohuomanzhuanyicainengcaozuohangtianqicongyikexingxingfeiwanglingyikexingxing。《kanbalataikongjihua》yeyinqilehangtianjigoudexingqu,nasadekexuejiahegongchengshixiezhuyouxikaifashangshejilehuojianyijizhixingrenwusuoxudegongju。

霍曼转移:
轨道升高 图/ KSPedia

彩票平台huomanzhuanyi: guidaoshenggao tu/ kspedia

霍曼转移:
轨道降低 图/ KSPedia

彩票平台huomanzhuanyi: guidaojiangdi tu/ kspedia

“萤火一号”: 出师未捷

chu“huoxing2020”wai,jinnianxiatianzuishouguanzhudehangtianhuodongdangshuzhongguoshoucihuoxingtancerenwu“tianwenyihao”。dan“tianwenyihao”bingfeizhongguotancehuoxingdeshoucichangshi,ruguo2011niande“yinghuoyihao”renwumeiyoushibai,caipiaopingtaitansuoxingchendahaidejiaobukenenghuikuaihenduo。

“yinghuoyihao”shuyuzhongehangtianhezuoxiangmuzhiyi。dangshieluosizhengzaijijituijin“fubusi-turang”renwu,zheishizisulianjietiyilaieluosishoucizongtiguihuadehuoxingtancerenwu。

彩票平台genjuyuanxiandejihua,“yinghuoyihao”tanceqijiangdachengefangyunzaihuojianjinruhuoxingguidao,ranhouzizhukaizhanhuoxingkongjianhuanjingdetancerenwu。er“fubusi-turang”tanceqijiangzai“huoweiyi”biaomianzhelu,caijiturangyangpinhoufanhuidiqiu。


“福布斯-土壤”和“萤火一号”构型 图/拉沃奇金设计局

“fubusi-turang”he“yinghuoyihao”gouxing tu/lawoqijinshejiju

彩票平台buguoeluosidejishujileibingbujinrurenyi,jiashanghangtianbumenyusuanbuzu,yincihenzhangyiduanshijianyilaimeiyoushishihuoxingtance。eluosideshangyicihuoxingtancerenwuhaiyaozhuisudao1996nian。

彩票平台dangshidazai“huoxing96”tanceqide“zhizihao”yunzaihuojiandisijidianhuoshibai,huojianhetanceqizuizhongzhuirutaipingyang。hangtianjiediaokan“huoxingbushuyueluosi”,danhuoxingtancedenandujida,shibaiyeshipingchangzhishi。

彩票平台“yinghuoyihao”yuanjihuayu2009nian10yuefashe。danzaifasheqian,eluosiyiquebaoxiangmukekaoxingweiyoujiangfasheshijianyanhouliangnian。dangdishijian2011nian11yue9ri,xiedai“yinghuoyihao”de“fubusi-turang”tanceqiconghasakesitanbaikenuerhangtianfashechangshengkong,danbujiuhoujiucongcekongwangzhongxiaoshi。

cekongzhongxinhoulaifaxian,“fubusi-turang”tanceqiyuhuojianfenlihouweinengchenggongbiangui,beikunzaidiqiuxianghuoxingguodudetuoyuanguidaoshang,zuizhongyu2012nian1yue15rizhuirutaipingyang。

qiurenburuqiuji,“yinghuoyihao”renwushibaihou,zhongguojuedingzizhujinxinghuoxingtance。dan“yinghuoyihao”zhishiyike“dabianche”deweixiaoweixing,zhifuzejinruhuoxingguidaokaizhantance。

erxianzaicongyunzaihuojian、guidaoqi、zheluqi、huoxingchedaoshenkongcekongwang,quanbuxuyaoduliwancheng。zheijiurutongyuanbenzhishidacheqianwangmudedi,xianzaiqueyaozizaoyitaicheyiyang,nandukexiangerzhi。

日月安属?列星安陈?

2016年1月11日,中国火星探测任务正式立项。2020年4月24日,中国首次火星探测任务定名为“天问一号”。这个名称征集自全球近3.6万份投稿,“天问”从最终入围的8个候选名称中脱颖而出。
“天问一号”着陆器和火星车组合 图/国家航天局

彩票平台“tianwenyihao”zheluqihehuoxingchezuhe tu/guojiahangtianju


彩票平台“萤火”任务原计划分四个阶段完成“绕”、“落”、“巡”、“回”,而“天问一号”将一次性完成“绕”、“落”、“巡”三大任务,这在航天史上尚无先例。

仅以“落”为例,所有火星探测器都要经历“恐怖7分钟”的考验。探测器进入火星大气时的速度约为每秒2.1万千米,而速度需要在7分钟内降至零。由于通信延时较长,因此探测器只能依靠事先注入的指令下降和着陆,且必须自行处理遇到的所有问题。
2012年登陆火星的“好奇”号火星车利用“天空发动机”着陆 图/NASA

彩票平台2012niandengluhuoxingde“haoqi”haohuoxingcheliyong“tiankongfadongji”zhelu tu/nasa

genjujihua,“tianwenyihao”jiangzai7、8yuejianconghainanwenchangdacheng“pangwu”shengkong,yuji2021nian4yue23rizaihuoxingwutuobangpingyuanzhelu,zheiliyeshidangnian“haidaoerhao”tanceqidezheludidian。

wutuobangpingyuandezhijingyuewei3300qianmi,shitaiyangxizuidadezhuangjikeng。“tianwenyihao”muqianxuandingdelianggezheludianzaiailvxiangshanfujin,mianjiyuewei40qianmi×100qianmi。

彩票平台2300nianqian,quyuanzaizhangshi《tianwen》zhongfachu“riyueanshu?liexinganchen?”dekaitan。zaiguolianggeduoyue,“tianwenyihao”jiujiangtashangzhengcheng。

Quick Facts

  • fashechuangkou: 2020nian7yue23rizhi8yue5ri

  • fashedidian: wenchanghangtianfashechang101gongwei

  •  yunzaihuojian: zhangzhengwuhaoyaosi

  • 彩票平台zhelushijian: 2021nian4yue23ri(yuji)

  • zheludidian: huoxingwutuobangpingyuan

地火通信如何进行

neime,shujuruheconghuoxingchuanhuidiqiuni?dihuotongxinmuqianyiweibohuojiguangzuoweichuanshujiezhi,shiyongzhongjitongxinmoshi。biruzai“tianwenyihao”renwuzhong,guidaoqijiangweizheluqihehuoxingchetigongzhongjitongxinlianlu。

彩票平台meicizhixinghuoxingtancerenwushi,tanceqidetongxinxitongshejidoushiyixianghaoshifeilidegongzuo。yincikeyanrenyuanshexiangzaijinhougoujianyizhongyouduokezhongjiweixingzuchengdehuoxingquanqiudingweixitong,yichengdantongxinrenwu。

彩票平台jiandanlaishuo,huoxingchejiangshujufasongjihuanhuozhongjiweixing,zhongjiweixingjinruyudiqiutongxindequyuhou,zaitongguoweibohuojiguangjiangshujufasongjidiqiujieshouxitong(huandiweixinghuodimianzhan)。

youyuliangkexingxingdexiangduiyundong,dihuozhijiandetongxinyanshisuishidouzaibianhua。ruguo“tianwenyihao”anjihuazai2021nian4yue23ridengluhuoxing,neishidihuozhijiandejuliyuewei2.94yiqianmi,diqiufachudezhilingjingguo16.32fenzhongcainengdaoda“tianwenyihao”,xuyaodengdaitongyangdeshijiancainengshoudao“tianwenyihao”dehuifu,erxinhaoshuaijianshangweikaolvzainei。


2021年4月23日地火单向通信延时示意图 图/星际移民中心

彩票平台2021nian4yue23ridihuodanxiangtongxinyanshishiyitu tu/xingjiyiminzhongxin

dangdiqiuyuhuoxingxiangjuzuijinshi,danxiangtongxinyanshiyuewei3.5fenzhong;erdangdiqiuyuhuoxingxiangjuzuiyuanshi,danxiangtongxinyanshijiangdadao22fenzhong。xiangbizhixia,xinxicongdiqiuchuanzhiyueqiujinxu1.3miao。congzheigeyiyishangshuo,yueqiukewei“jinzaizhichi”。

在电影《火星救援》中,男主角最初通过火星探测器的摄像机接收来自地球的信息,双方利用十六进制相互通信: 男主角在探测器周围插上一圈写有数字0到9、字母A到F的牌子,摄像机指向哪个牌子就记下相应的字符,然后对照ASCII表解读信息。
接收来自地球的信息 图/《火星救援》

jieshoulaizidiqiudexinxi tu/《huoxingjiuyuan》

为什么采用十六进制而不是十进制或二进制呢?因为ASCII定义了128个字符,表示同样一个字符时,十六进制比十进制或二进制使用的比特数更少,摄像机转动的次数因而更少。毕竟地球与火星之间的通信延时太长,摄像机转动的次数越多,接收完整信息需要等待的时间就越长。
ASCII表

asciibiao

ruguocaiyongshijinzhijieshouxinxi,neimeshexiangjixuyaozhuandong3cicainengbiaoshiyigezifu(000dao127)。birucaipiaopingtaixiwangfasong“how”,zhei3gezimudeshijinzhizhifenbiewei072、111、119,suoyishexiangjiyigongxuyaozhuandong9ci。

ruguocaiyongerjinzhijieshouxinxi,neimeshexiangjixuyaozhuandong7cicainengbiaoshiyigezifu(0000000dao1111111)。tongyangyijieshou“how”weili,zhei3gezimudeerjinzhizhifenbiewei1001000、1101111、1110111,suoyishexiangjiyigongxuyaozhuandong21ci。

ercaiyongshiliujinzhishi,shexiangjijinxuzhuandong2cijiunengbiaoshiyigezifu(0x00dao0x7f)。“how”zhei3gezimudeshiliujinzhizhifenbiewei0x48、0x6f、0x77,suoyishexiangjizhiyaozhuandong6cijike。

关于《无线通信简史》

dihuotongxinbingfei《wuxiantongxinjianshi》zhongdiantaolundeneirong,dantanxundiancibodefazhanlichengshiyijianhenyouyisideshiqing。maikesiweijianlidiancichanglilunhou,hezilvxiantongguoshiyanzhengshilediancibodecunzai。

tadeshiyanyiyifeifan,danhezizuichubingweiyishidaodiancibozaitongxinzhongdejudaqianli,tarenweidiancibokeneng“haowuyongchu”。zheiweideguowulixuejiameiyouxiangdao,wuxiantongxinjishubujinchedigaibianlerenleiderichangshenghuo,yeconggenbenshanggaibianleshijielishidejincheng。

彩票平台zaiyidongtongxinlingyu,nuojiyacengjingshidangzhiwukuidewangzhe。cong1997niandao2011niande14nianjian,zheijiafenlandianxinjutoulaolaozhanjuquanqiushoujixiaoliangdiyidebaozuo。dingshengshiqidenuojiyaweifenlangongxianle4%deguominshengchanzongzhihe25%dechukoue,fenlanyeyidubeichengwei“nuojiyawangguo”。

suoyiyouqiannuojiyafuzongcailaishulizheiduanbolanzhuangkuodewuxiantongxinfazhanshi,huoxunengweiduzhetigongguanchawentidelingyigeshijiao。zuoweiyejiezhimingdetongxinzhuanjia,bideli·laoniainingshinuojiyalishidejianzhengzhe,tayiyinrenrushengdebifamiaoshulenuojiyadedieqixingshuai。

congwuxiandian、dianshi、shouji、weixingdaohang、shenfenshibie、wi-fidao5g,rujinwuchubuzaideyidongshenghuo,huoxudounengzhuisudao150nianqianneige“haowuyongchu”defaxian。

【taimeitizuozhejieshao: benwenneironglaiziyu《wuxiantongxinjianshi: congdiancibodao5g》deyizhejiangnan。tachushendianziyujisuanjigongchengzhuanyedechanpinjingli,duonianlaizhiliyuchanpinkaifayuruanjianjiagouguihua,duisuanfayushujumijixingyingyongtongyangxingqunonghou。yeyukejitushuyizhe,yansumalasongpaozhe。

彩票平台benshudezuozhebideli·laoniaining ,shiqiannuojiyafuzongcai、nuojiyabaxiyanfazhongxinshouxijishuguan,muqiandanrenchuchuangqiyedatumizeshouxijishuguan。zuozhezaitongxinxingyejinyin30yunian,shiyejiezhimingdetongxinzhuanjia,duijisuanjiheyidongtongxindefazhanyongyoushenkedongjian。】

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    nizuoqienimingmingminglaigeyizicaipiaopingtaijieshaomoban: 【nicheng】: heibo 【zuobiao】: beijing 【zhiye】: uishejishi 【aihao】: yinle,huahua,kandianying 【touzijingli】: jijindingtou 【aikandeshu】: zhouguopingdeshu,shejilei,《wukongchuan》 【benqimubiao】: yijiebula,quanbuxuewan,mingquetouzijihua 【caipiaopingtaixuanshi】: jianchimeirixuexi,xueyizhiyong

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