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【书评】中国既是一个制造大国,也是一个消费大国

摘要: 成为“消费大国”,需要一系列的改革。

作者: 毛振华

出版社: 中国人民大学出版社

出版时间: 2020年6月

mianduiyiqingchongji、guojichanyeliangongyinglianzhonggou,caipiaopingtaiguohongguanjingjimianlinqiansuoweiyoudetiaozhan。kuodaneixu,tuidongjingjifazhanfangshijiakuaizhuanbian,shicaipiaopingtaiguoyingduijingjixiaxingdezhongyaojucuo。

zhongguorenmindaxuejingjiyanjiusuosuozhang、zhongchengxinjituandongshizhangmaozhenhuajiaoshouzaizuijindeyicifenxiangzhongjianyi: “yaojiangfafangjuminbutiezuoweikuodaneixudeluojiaodian。”maozhenhuajiaoshouzaixinshu《shuangdixiansiwei》zhong,jiukuodaneixu、cujinjingjifazhanfangshizhuanbiandejutifangshitichulekexingde、xiangxidezhengcejianyi。

彩票平台zonggongjiyuzongxuqiushihongguanjingjixuezhongfeichangzhongyaodeyiduigainian,liangzhezhijiandepinghengshibaochijingjiwendinghechixufazhandezhongyaotiaojian。yinci,conggongjiyuxuqiuguanxidejiaodutantaojingjizengzhangwentishihongguanjingjifenxidejibenkuangjia,yeshijiejuejingjizengzhangwentidechufadian。

zaigaigekaifangqian30nianzhongguojingjiqudezhangzufazhandeshihou,caipiaopingtaizaoyuquanqiuxingdejingjiweiji,shidezhongguojingjizengzhangzhubujileidewentituxianchulai,tebieshishehuixuqiubuzu、shengchannengliyanzhongguoshengwenti,chengweizhiyuezhongguojingjijiankangfazhandeguanjian。

zheiciweijiyebaolulecaipiaopingtaiguochuantongdeyilaitouzizengzhang、buduankuozhangshengchannenglidezengzhangmoshidebiduan。yinci,shixianzhongguojingjizengzhangmoshizhuanhuan,quelizhongguobujinshiyigezhizaoyedaguo,yeshiyigexiaofeidaguodezhanlve,chengweicaipiaopingtaizailishihexianshitiaojianxiadebiranxuanze。

以内需为主是中国经济转型的核心内容

彩票平台zaigaigekaifangqian30niandekuaisuzengzhangzhong,daduoshuxuezheshenzhizhengfujuecezherenshidao,zhongguojingjizengzhangshicufangdezengzhang,xuyaozhuanhuanjingjizengzhangfangshi,tigaojishuchuangxinnengli,shixianjiyuehuadezengzhang。

guanyuzengzhangmoshidezhuanhuan,jihushejizhongguojingjigongjilingyudesuoyouneirong,daduoshicongruhegaishanjiegou、tigaojishuheshichangjingzhengnenglidenggongjiyinsujiaoduchufade,ercongxiaofeixuqiufangmianzhankaidefenxishenshao。

dangran,zheiyucaipiaopingtailishishangzhangqichuyuduanquejingjizhuangtaiyouguan,yeyucaipiaopingtailishixingdiliyonglexinyongxiaofei、quanqiuhuahejishugemingchuangzaodexuqiuyouguan。keyishuo,2008nianyiqian,gaishanhekuodagongjishizhongguojingjichixuzengzhangdezhuxian。

彩票平台2008nian,zaizhongguojingjitizhigaige30nianzhiji,zaizongjiezhongguojingjizhangqigaozengzhangqijidejingyandetongshi,bukehushidewentishi,congzongxuqiufangmianzhichizhongguojingjichixugaozengzhangdezheixieyinsu,jibenshangyijingshuaijianshenzhixiaoshi: “duanquejingji”yichengweilishi;quanqiuhuadailaideshichangjiyuzhengzaishuaitui,bingqiecaipiaopingtaixuyaozaiyigejiaozhangshiqineixiaohuayouyuguogaodewaixuyicunduxingchengdeguoshengshengchannengli;

xinyongxiaofeidejingpenshikuozhangjieduanyijingguoqu,jubufengxiantuxian,duanqineibukenengdaguimokuozhang;dianzijitongxinlingyudejishuchuangxinxiaoyingdijian,nanyichuxianxindegemingxingdetupo,qieyouyushichangjingzheng,zaixiaofeizongliangshangnanyoudazuowei。keyishuo,buzhaodaozhongguojingjizengzhangxuqiuladongyinsudexinneirong,zhongguojingjizengzhangjiunanyibaozheng。

zai2008nianjingjiweijideyalixia,shijiegeguodouzaixunqiucijixiaofei、kuodajiuye、cujinjingjizengzhangdezhengce,zhongguozhengfuyetuichuleyi“siwanyitouzi”weibiaozhideyixiliezhengcecuoshi。

zheixiecuoshicongduanqilaikan,shiyoukenenghuanjiejingjizengzhangdekunnande;dancongzhangqilaikan,rengranmeiyouzouchuguoquzaixuqiuzhiyuemaodunbutuchutiaojianxiazhengfuzhudaodeyikaotouzikuozhangdelaolu。

彩票平台ruqiansuoshu,zhongguojingjizengzhangdexuqiuladongyinsuyifashenggenbenxinggaibian,jixuchuantongdeyigongjilingyuweizhudecaozuokenengnanyifahuiguoqufahuiguodexiaoyong。bingqieyouyubufenzijinzhuruyiyanzhongguoshengdechanyelingyu,fanerhuiyuyijingwentizhongzhongdejiegouxingmaodunxingchenggongzhen,jiajuhongguanjingjidekunnan。

彩票平台yinci,duanqineixunqiukuodaneixudeyouxiaocuoshihezhangqitanqiuzhongguojingjikuodaneixuzhanlve,shizhongguojingjizengzhangdehexinwenti。

把扩大国内消费需求的经济政策提升到国家战略层面上来

conggenbenshangjiejuezhongguojingjizengzhangdexuqiuzhiyuewenti,yaoqiucaipiaopingtaizai“guojiazhanlve”zheiyigenggaocengcishangsikao。

yaopochuchuantongsiwei,bahongguanjingjizhengcedezhelidianconggongjilingyuzhuandaoxuqiulingyu,erxuqiulingyudezhongdianyaofangdaoguoneixiaofeixuqiushanglai。conggongjishanggaijin,jinyibutigaojingzhengnenglituozhanguojishichang,shikeyuerbukeqiude,yefeiyirizhigong,qiezhudongquanbingbuwanquanzaicaipiaopingtaishoushang。

彩票平台zaidangqianquanqiuxiaofeijinsuodebeijingxia,caipiaopingtaigengyaoqingxingdirenshidaotongguogaishangongjikuodaguojishichangdekunnan,jishicaipiaopingtaizhongxinqiyongguoquxingzhiyouxiaodegulichukouzhengce,yenanyiqudecengjingyouguodexiaoguo。

彩票平台kuodatouzixuqiubenshenjuyouyekuodaleweilaigongjinenglideliangzhongxing,zhangqilaikan,ruguomeiyouxiaofeixuqiudedaguimokuozhang,shibihuikuodagongxumaodun。weiyoukuodaguoneixiaofeixuqiu,caishishangyouqianli、caipiaopingtaiwoyouzhudongquanqiefuzuoyongjiaoxiaodelingyu,zheishilishihexianshijicaipiaopingtaidexuanze。

bakuodaguoneixiaofeixuqiuzuoweiyixiangzhangqidejingjizhengce,bingjiangqitishengdao“guojiazhanlve”cengmianshanglai。zhongguoyijingchengweiquanqiuzhongyaodezhizaoyedaguo,tigonglefadajingjitisuoxudedaduoshujibenxiaofeipin,zheishizhongguojingjidechenggongzhidao。danshi,chukoushichangdeweisuo,bujinshidangqianquanqiuweijidelinshikunnan,yehuichengweiweilaidechangtai。

yifangmian,youyuguojishehuiduiyuyimeiguoweidaibiaodeguoduxiaofeimoshidefansi,shichangyouweisuodequshi;lingyifangmian,zhongguojingjifazhanbirandaozhidelaodongli、huanjingziyuangongjichengbendeshangsheng,yexueruolezhongguochanpindejingzhengli。

而与此同时,中国国内消费需求市场特别是农村市场还处于很低的水平,有很大的发展空间。因此,扩大国内需求,既为彩票平台走出低谷、实现长期增长找到了支撑,也能达到改善国民生活的目的。从全球范围看,中国国内消费需求的扩大,也是对世界经济增长的巨大贡献。

彩票平台zhongguochengweiyigexiaofeidaguo,shizhongguojingjizengzhangmoshizhuanhuandehexinneirong。zhiyouzheiyang,zhongguojingjicainengjianshaoguojiyilai,baozhengjingjianquan;yezhiyouzheiyang,zhongguojingjicainengjiejuexianyoushengchannengliguoshengwenti,cainengweixinyilunkuodagongjichuangzaotiaojian。

zhizaoyerengranshizhongguodezhongyaoyoushihefazhanzhongdian。zaijuyougengchongfenguoneishichangdetiaojianxia,zhizaoyekehuoqugenghaodefazhantiaojian,congertishengzhizaoyedejingzhengnengli。weilaizhongguojingjidejiankanggejushi: zhongguojishiyigezhizaodaguo,yeshiyigexiaofeidaguo。

成为“消费大国”,需要一系列的改革

zhisuoyiba“xiaofeidaguo”mubiaozuoweiguojiazhanlvelaikaolv,shiyinweizheiyimubiaoshejicaipiaopingtaiguojingjitizhizhengcedeyixiliediaozheng。

彩票平台zhongguonengfouchengwei“xiaofeidaguo”,qujueyuguominxiaofeinenglinengfouqudezongtitisheng。zheiduicaipiaopingtaiguoquzhangqishixingdeyixiezhongdazhengce,tichulegaigediaozhengdeyaoqiu。

一是调整收入分配政策。彩票平台长期以来,彩票平台在国民收入分配领域重国家、轻个人。2002—2007年间,中国GDP年增长水平在10%左右,但财政收入年增幅超过30%。2008年,彩票平台国劳动者报酬占GDP的比重依然在11%~12%这一较低水平。

yinci,tongguozhiduanpai,zongtishangtigaolaodongzhebaochouzaiguominshouruzhongdefenpeibizhong,rangguangdarenminqunzhongfenxianggaigefazhandechengguo,shizheiyiguojiazhanlvedeguanjian。

二是加快城市化进程。城市化意味着人口的迁移和巨大的内需。多国经验表明,农村人口向城市迁移会产生巨大的“累计效应”,进而成为经济增长长期的需求拉动因素。据测算,如果彩票平台国城市人口达到70%,将增加5亿城市人口,需要投资50万亿元以上。

彩票平台zheibufentouzibujinjinyikaozhengfu,erqieyinweizheixierenkouguangfandeshehuiguanxi,haihuiqiandongquanshehuidetouzi。congzheigeyiyishangjiang,zhongguomuqianjiaodidechengshihuashuiping,shilishiliuxiadexuqiukongque,yeshishishi“xiaofeidaguo”zhanlvedezhongyaokeliyongziyuan。

三是改革农村土地制度。彩票平台与城市化问题相联系,改革土地制度,使现有农民土地成为可交易的资产,将为农村城市化提供巨大的资金来源,并为农业劳动生产率的进一步提高创造条件。这一问题涉及许多重大有争议的内容,这里不展开分析。

四是加快社会保障体系的彩票平台步伐,构建社会安全网。国际经验证明,国民消费信心和能力,取决于社会保障体系的完善程度。只有加大社会保障体系的投入,扩大受惠人口,提升保障水平,才能改变彩票平台国现实存在的较低收入与较高储蓄并存的现象,使民众减少就业、医疗、教育、养老等方面的后顾之忧,敢于消费。逐步建立覆盖全社会的社会保障体系,也是推动中国城市化进程的必要措施。

五是调整经济结构,大力发展彩票平台业。彩票平台国彩票平台业占国内生产总值的比重不到40%,低于发达国家70%的水平,也低于与彩票平台国经济发展水平类似国家的约50%的水平。发展彩票平台业可以有效增加就业量和居民收入。

caipiaopingtaiyedefazhanyaoqiutishenglaodonggongzi,bingqiegaibiancaipiaopingtaiguominzhongdexiaofeixiguan,weihuxiangtigongdecaipiaopingtaizhifufeiyong,zheixieyeshejigengguangfan、fuzadeshehuijingjiwenhualingyu,zheiliyebuzhankailunshule。

彩票平台lingyigechuantongde“zhongshengchanqingxiaofei”guanniangenshendigudeguojiazhuanxingweishengchanxiaofeibingzhongdexiaofeidaguo,shiyixianghongdadexitonggongcheng。xianyupianfu,benshubuyiyiliejushixianzheiyizhuanxingsuoxudediaozhenggaigehefazhandeduogeyinsu。

jincongshangshufenxizhong,caipiaopingtaijikandaoleshishizheiyizhanlvedefuzaxing,yenengtihuidaoshishizheiyizhanlveduicaipiaopingtaiguojingjishehuifazhansuoqidaodeguanjianzuoyong。

以扩大就业为扩大内需的优先政策

quanqiuxingdejingjiweijishicaipiaopingtaiguojingjizengzhangdejiyoutiaojianchuxianlezhongdadebianhua。zaishichangyalixia,zhongguojingjimianlinzheshengchannengliyanzhongguosheng、bufenqiyeguanting、daliangnongmingongshiyefanxiang,yijisuizhierlaideqiyelirunhezhengfucaizhengshourushuangshuangxiajiangdengzhuduowenti。

彩票平台zhongyangzhengfuchutaileyixilieladongjingjizengzhangdecuoshi,tichule“baozengzhang、baominsheng、baowending”defangzhen,xianshilezaitedingkunnanshiqi,zhengfuyuanyigengduodiganyujingjiyifangzhijingjijinyibushuaitui。fenxizheixiezhengcecuoshikezhi,cezhongyukuodatouzixuqiudecuoshibijiaoduo,ercezhongyuzuizhongxiaofeixuqiudecuoshishaoleyidian。

彩票平台guojijingyangaosucaipiaopingtai,yijiuyeweizhuxiandezhengfucuoshiduiyuzhijiekuodaneixuxiaoguozuimingxian。duiyudishourugongxinjiecenglaishuo,gongzishourujibenshangquanbuyongyujiqixiaofei。

ruguozheibufenrenshiye,bujinxiaofeinenglixiajiang,erqiekenengchuxianyixieshehuiwendingfangmiandefengxian。fanguankuodatouzixuqiudexiaoguo,zezhinengyou1/3zuoyouzhuanweijiqixiaofei,bingqiecongzhangyuanlaikanshijinyibukuodagongjinengli。yinci,kuodajiuyeyinggaishijingjidiaozhengshiqizhengfudiaokongcuoshidezhongdian,ergdpzengzhanglvyingjiangweiciyaozhibiao。

彩票平台guanyujiuyewenti,xuduoxuezheyoushenrudeyanjiu,lilunshangdefenxiyizugouzhichengyingyikuodajiuyezuoweikuodaneixujiazhiquxiangdeguandian。benshujinjiuruhekuodajiuyetichuyixiechubudexiangfa:

第一,运用补贴政策直接扩大就业。彩票平台有人建议给予新增就业的企业每人每年补贴8 000~10 000元,这是可以考虑的方案。起码对于每年新加入产业后备队伍的几百万名大学毕业生,更有这种紧迫性。以每增雇一名应届大学生补贴8 000元,每年有600万名毕业生估计,实施这一方案需要480亿元。

zheisuiranshiyibibuxiaodezhichu,danzheixiebutiekeyiquanbuzhuanhuaweijiqixiaofei,duiyujingjizengzhangdeladongzuoyongyuanyuandayuqitalingyudetouzi。gengzhongyaodeshi,zheiyicuoshinenggoubagaishanminshengluodaoshichu,weihushehuihexieyuwending。keyishuo,jiuyebutiezhengceshicaipiaopingtaixuyaojinkuaituichudecijijingjidecuoshizhiyi。

第二,要大力扶持发展民营企业和劳动密集型产业。彩票平台目前,政府推出的扩大投资计划,基本上是政府直接投资或由国企实施,且集中于基础设施和重化工产业,这些领域的就业弹性较低。统计资料表明,国有企业的资产就业率是最低的,民营企业则是最高的。

yinci,caipiaopingtaixuyaojinyibuqianghuacijineixuzhengcedejiuyedaoxiang,tebieshiyaoguanzhudapishiyefanxiangdenongmingongjimianlinjiuyeyalidedaxuebiyeshengdejiuyewenti。jianyizhengfuzaishishicijijingjizhengceshi,gengduodizhichizhongxiaominyingqiyehelaodongmijixingchanyedefazhan,fangzhizhengfuziyuanjizhongyuguoqierchuxianjiuyefangmiangengdadeyali。

彩票平台suirancongliyichuandaoshangkan,guoyouqiyekeyigengzhijiedishixianzhengfudecaizhengmubiao,danshixiandehongguanxiaoguobingbuhao,zheishicaipiaopingtaiyaozhongshidewenti。

第三,要在目前社会保障体系不健全的情况下,采取专门的失业应急措施。例如,扩大对失业者的救助,完善培训计划,建立有助于推动就业的中介组织等。

第四,加大农村基础设施彩票平台投入,为返乡农民工创造就业机会。当前比较严重的问题是返乡农民工的再就业问题,他们基本上是彩票平台国社会保障体系的“死角”。建议在新增的投资中,集中资金彩票平台农村的道路交通和水利基础设施。

nongcundiqudejijianbuxuyaoshiyongdaxinggongchengjixie,nengzuidaxiandudizhaoyongnongmingong。nongcuntiaojiandegaishan,yeweicaipiaopingtaiguonongcundiqudefazhantigonglejichu。xiangduiyumuqianguojiatuichudeyixiedaxingtielu、jichangcaipiaopingtaijihua,nongcundiqutouzideshehuixiaoyihuigenghao。

【taimeitizuozhejieshao: benwenlaizi《shuangdixiansiwei》dezuozhemaozhenhua。tashijingjixueboshi,zhongguorenmindaxuejingjixueyuanjiaoshou、boshishengdaoshi,zhongguorenmindaxuejingjiyanjiusuosuozhang。1979niankaoruwuhandaxuejingjixi,yanjiushengjieduanshicongzhumingjingjixuejiadongfurengjiaoshou。cengxianhouzaihubeishengtongjiju、hubeishengweizhengceyanjiushi、hainanshengzhengfuyanjiuzhongxin、guowuyuanyanjiushidengdanweicongshijingjiyanjiugongzuo。1992nianchuangbanzhongguochengxinzhengquanpingguyouxiangongsi。

2009年9月在中国人民大学经济学院主办单位:彩票平台_彩票平台排行-【首充包赔】

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