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直男工厂的「柔性」改造

摘要: 没有3.0的坚实地基,工业4.0只能是空中楼阁。

图片来源@视觉中国

tupianlaiyuan@shijuezhongguo

wen | taihechanyeguancha,zuozhe | lifuqiang,bianji | liuaiguo,shujuzhichi | taihechanyeyanjiuyuan

彩票平台1967nian,yingguomolinsgongsigongchengshidiao·weilianmuxunyanzhichuyizhongmingweimolins system-24dexitong——yong6taimokuaihuajiegoudeduogongxushukongjichuang,shixianwurentiaojianxiazhouye24xiaoshilianxujiagong。

这个系统的推出,标志着人类工业史上「柔性制造」系统的正式诞生。

jinguanzheigehuashidaidexitongzuizhongyouyuzijinhejishushangdekunnanbingweiquanbujiancheng,danqueweiweilaizidonghua、wurenhuagongchangtigongleyanjindefangxiang,chengweirihougegongyefadaguojiazhengxiangxiaofanghewanshandejishu。

yiqingqijian,zhongguogedagongchangkuaisuwanchengchanxianqiehuan,zhuanchankouzhaohefanghufudengkangyiwuzi、zhiyuanquanqiukangyizhanchangdexinwenlvlvjianzhumeiti,rangrouxingzhizaozaicichengweixingyeguanzhudejiaodian。

genjuhaiguanzongshufabudetongjishuju,3yue1ri-4yue30ri,quanguogongyanfangchukouzhuyaofangyiwuzikouzhao278yizhi,fanghufu1.3yijian,xinguanbingdujianceshijihe7341wanrenfen,hongwaicewenyi1257wanjian,huxiji4.91wantai,jinqirijunchukoufangyiwuzi30yiyuanyishang,yigeyueneichixuzengzhangyu3bei。

zheiyizhangchuanliangyanshujudebeihou,chuleyuanyouchangjiamijipaichanzhiwai,tongguorouxingfangshishixian「kuajiezhuanchan」delilianggongxianjuda。

彩票平台gelumingxingqiyezhuanchanfangyiwuzi,jiguorenzaochengyizhongcuojuejiaxiang——renweizhongguozhizaoyijingjubeixiangdangqiangdade「rouxing」shili。danshijishangju「taihezhiku」zaiyixianqiyedediaoyanguancha,juedaduoshudezhongguogongchang,youqishigaoduanzhizao,li「rouxing」qishihaixiangdangyaoyuan。

以「柔」补刚

彩票平台kuajiezhuanchanfangyiwuzidebianwaililiangzhong,bufazhongduochaojiqiyedeshenying。

qizhongzhumingderubiyadi。congyiyuedikaishidiaopeiziyuan,kaifazidonghuakouzhaoshengchanshebei,bangeduoyuejishixianliangchan。jihutongshi,zhongshihuadeyewufanweiyexiangxiayouyanshen,kaifalekouzhao、xiaoduyedengshengchanxian。

bafeitezaishejiaomeitipingtaiweibiyadikouzhaodacallqingshurutushuo

yizaozhandoujizhumingdehangkonggongyeyewanqile「kuajie」,jijiejituanqixiafenbuzai6shengshi4jiadanweideliliang,jiangyuanlaishengchanfeijisuoyongdeshuzihuashejijishuyinrukouzhaoshengchan,jinyong3tianshijiansheji,16tianshijianjiuwanchengyangjizhizao,sudukanchengjingren。

hangkonggongyeyanzhide「1chu2xing」quanzidongkouzhaoji

这些新成立的生产线,普遍具备高度自动化特点,一个操作工人就可以同时维护两三条生产线的运转。

彩票平台yiqingdailaidebujinshiguominjingjidedakao,yezhengzaichengweijiasuzhongguozhizaoyebiangedebianliangyinsu。wulunshitongguo「rouxing」fangshishixianduishengchanxiandekuaisuqiehuan,haishiyongjiqi「huanren」,tongguowurenjishudaliangtihuanrenli,doushizhuanxingshengjidezhongguozhizaoxingyexuyaopanyuedezhongzhongguanshan。

这背后的一个基本逻辑是——「自制」和「外包」过程中越来越多的矛盾,需要靠柔性制造来调和解决。

彩票平台piliangyueda,xiaolvyuegao,zheishigongye3.0shidaidepushiyuanli。jiaruyigegongchangzhishengchanyizhonglingjian,neiwulunshicongyuancailiaocaigou、cangchuguanli、shengchanxianyunzhuan、caozuorenyuanshulianchengdudenggegeweidu,junnengshixianxiaolvzuidahua。raner,zheiyangdegongchangzhinengshilixiangzhuangtaixiade「wutuobang」——xuqiudeduoyuanhua,shenzhigexinghuashiwufadidangdequshi。

作为科技进步的受益者,诸多行业也不得不面对由此而来的现实问题: 产品复杂程度越来越高,生产流程变得越来越长。为了保障效率,彩票平台把生产流程碎片化,依靠外包来解决多元化需求带来的效率影响。

彩票平台yushi,caipiaopingtaikandaocongyuancailiaodaochengpindelujingcongdanyiqiyede「malasongshi」shengchan,bianchenglegejigongyingshanghezhuzhizaoshangde「jielishi」shengchan。zaizheigenyuelayuezhangdeliantiaoshang,meigechengyuanjizhongjinglichongciyiduansaidao,meigejieduandexiaolvdeyiweichi。

danshisuizhewaibaochengdudejiashen,gongchangduigongyingliandeyilaichengduyeriyitigao,shenzhijingchangyoubei「kabozi」defengxian。yiqingtuqi,quanqiufanweidedagelizhijinweiwanquanjiechu,chejiantinggong、wuliuzhihou、gongchangdaobi,daliangchanyelianyincishouzhiyu「ren」,zhuduoxingyemianlinzheqiansuoweiyoudeduangongweiji。

过刚易折,自制和外包两条路都不能走上极端,而二者之间,需要一些「柔性」来中和。

彩票平台zuoweigongye4.0zhongyaomingtizhiyiderouxingzhizao,qihexinjiazhizaiyu,jinenggouyikaozidonghuashebeibaozhangshengchanxiaolv,yourangshengchanxianjuyouyidingdeyanzhanxing,keyigenjushichangbianhuahekehuxuqiuduichanpinjinxingshishidiaozheng。

conggenghongguandeshiyejiaodulaishuo,「rouxing」gainianqishiyijingzaiqianyimohuadiyingxiangcaipiaopingtaiderichangshenghuo。yiqingqijian,tiyuguangaijianchenglefangcangyiyuan,jiaoshidangqilewangluozhubo,wurenjibeigaizaochengwuhuabamende「kongzhongjiqiren」……

但是,即使全社会都认可「柔性」的大趋势,也并不意味实现的容易。局部领域的「柔性」和智能化,也并不代表中国制造已经具备全面迈进工业4.0的能力。 

近年来,「柔性制造」被行业提及的频率大幅度降低,其重要原因之一是——具备较高自动化水平的柔性生产线,对于绝大多数的中国工厂,尤其是高端制造工厂来说仍然是奢侈品。

zhongguojixiegongyelianhehuizhuanjiamingyuweizhuren、gongxinbuzhinengzhizaozhuanjiazixunweiyuanhuizhurenzhusendirenwei,xiangdangyibufenzhongguogongchanghaichuyu「gongye2.0」jieduan:

「zhongguozhizaoyexuyaocaiqubingxingzhanlve,ji2.0buke、3.0puji、4.0shifan。」

柔性制造有多难?

彩票平台1982nian,you60gefmc(rouxingzhizaodanyuan)heyigeliticangkuzuchengdezidonghuadianjijiagongchejianzairibenfanucgongsijiancheng,yikaoliangtaizidongyindaotaichechuansongmaopihegongjian,jiagong,zhuangxie,chuansongguochengbuxuyaorengongcaozuo,ciwai,fanuchaiyouyigewurenhuadianjizhuangpeichejian,tongyangnengshixianlianxu24xiaoshiyunzhuan。

ertongshiqidezhongguo,diyipigetihucaiganggangchangdaozhuanqiandetiantou。gaodaodandekexuejiamen,zhengzaishenqiangdayuanlixianmudajieshang「maichayedande」。

柔性制造在中国的推广普及,与中国制造业的进化过程密不可分——其中始终绕不开的两个关键词,一是「需求」,二是「技术」。

彩票平台congxuqiushanglaishuo,zhangqiyilaiyikaolianjialaodonglihonglidezhongguoqiye,duizidonghuashengchandexuqiubingbupoqie。

彩票平台suiranlaodonglichengbenzhengtikuaisushangzhang,danshizhongguogongrendepubianshourushuipingrengranwufahexifangfadaguojiaxiangbi。genjuguojiatongjijudeshuju,2018niancaipiaopingtaiguochengzhenzhizaoyecongyerenyuandepingjunnianshouruwei72088yuan,fentandaoxiaoshijisuan,pingjunshixinwei35yuan,zai7nianneifanleliangbei。zheigeshuzicukanmaosizengzhangbucuo,qieshuzibeihou,jicengcongyerenyuanshouru「beipingjun」dexianshiheyuelaiyuepinfandejiabanjiadianquemeiyoutixianchulai。

yucitongqi,meiguocongyerenyuandeshixinwei21.5meiyuan,ribenyeyouyue2000riyuan,qiezheiliangguoduonianlaidezhizaoyegongzishuipingbingwudafuduzengzhang。

qingshurutushuo2011-2018nianzhongguochengzhenzhizaoyecongyerenyuangongzizengzhangqingkuang

彩票平台duiyudaliangzhongxiaozhizaoqiyeshenzhizuofangshigongchanglaishuo,nengtongguorengongjiejuedewenti,jiujinliangbuyongangguishebei——renzoulekeyizaizhao,danshiqianzhitourujuda,qie「luodidabazhe」dejiqishebei,jingguoruogannianzhejiuzhihou,kenengzhishiyiduileizhuizichan。

只有当人工无法解决一些生产问题,或者效率明显跟不上机器的时候,自动化替代才会成为企业刚需。

据「钛禾智库」研究观察,目前国内柔性制造和「无人工厂」普及率较高的行业,除了汽车、家电、3C数码等生产批量大、头部企业集中的行业,以及一些从事简单加工的行业等,其它制造企业与西方发达国家相比,更多的仍然是依靠「人海战术」。甚至在彩票平台的产业结构中,一些越尖端的行业,越难以摆脱「手工作坊式」生产的影子。彩票平台许多关键工序的实现还是要依赖操作者的熟练程度。

彩票平台guoneidaliangjixiejiagong,haichuyugaoduyilai「ren」dejieduan

congfangyiwuzideshengchanyekejianyiban,kouzhao、fanghufudengdiduanchanpindezhuanchankeyixunsugenshangxuqiu。danshishengchannandujiaogaodehuxijishijiukaishiluqie,daliangdehaiwaidingdanyijingpaidaoniandi。

dangran,bingbunengyinciquanmianbiandizhongguozhizaodenengli。jishishizhizaoyefadadeoumeiguojia,yezhiyoutongyong、fute、tesiladengjigeweishubuduodexingyejutou,younenglixunsuzhuanchanhuxijihuoxiangguanlingjian。

彩票平台caipiaopingtaiguokejizhengceyuguanliyanjiutaidou、lianheguodaxuexinjishuyanjiusuogaojiyanjiuyuangushulinnvshicengdui「taihezhiku」jiangshuyigexijie,2018nian,yiweiliudedegaojizhuanjiahuidaozhongguobanchang,congshigaojingmidehangtianlingbujianjiagong。danshizheiweizhuanjiaquefaxian,deguoxuedaodegongye4.0zhishigenbenyongbudaoguoneidechanxianshang,rengranxuyaocong3.0,shenzhi2.0dekekaishibuqi。

gushulinrenwei,zhongguozaijianduanjishulingyubingbuluohouyushijieqiangguo,caipiaopingtaihenzaojiunenggaochushijielingxiandejianduanwuqihezhongdazhuangbei。danshiquezhangqiyilaiyu「ren」,zheixierenyidanlikaigangwei,henduoxianjinjishushenzhimianlin「shichuan」fengxian。

「zhongguoyouyibangjingyanfengfudelaogongjiang,danshimuqianzuiquefade,shibazheixielaogongjiangnaodailidejingyanfanyichengshuzihuagongshi、jinxingfuzhituiguangdexinyidaichanyeren。」

高端装备制造,是柔性制造要攻克的最终堡垒,也是对「柔性」需求最强烈的领域。

彩票平台zheileixingyedelingbujianpiliangxiao、pinzhongduo、jiegoufuza、jiagongnanduda、zhuangpeigongxufansuo,shizuipoqiexiwangbaochisulvyoushi,youqidaishengchandanxingdelingyu。

但恰恰是这些高端装备制造行业,加工工序过于复杂,工艺要求太高——没有长期工程技术经验的量化积累,就相当于地基不稳,智能化的柔性制造只能是空中楼阁。

彩票平台yazaiqiyetoushangdehaiyoujingjizhang——jishinengquanmianshixianrouxinggaizao,gouzhishengchanxiandeewaichengbenyexuyaoxiangdangzhangdeshijiancainengshouhui。

yaoxiangchedigaizaozheixie「yinghezhinan」,haiyouxiangdangzhangdeluyaozou。

软肋和硬骨头

彩票平台2015nian,mouzhongdazhuangbeizhizaoyangqicengjingtourushuqianwanyuandazaorouxingzhizaoyangbanchejian,danshilishisinianquejinzhanhuanman。

yuanyinzhiyishiruanjianwenti,youyujiqishebeiduoweijinkou,zaiguowaicaozuoxitongjichushangzailaibianxieguochanliuchengkongzhiruanjian,zaochengzhuduoyunxingluojichuxianchongtu。

软件的研发,一直是中国制造业的软肋。

shanzhangyunixiangkaifadezhongguoren,jileiledaliangxiangyingxuqiudejingyan,nenggougaozhigaoxiaodejiejuehow(zenmezuo)dewenti,danyerongyixingchengsiweijuxian——jiangdiduiwhat(zuoshenme)demingan。zheijiuxiangdangyuzuozaifujiashideweizhishang,qishiyongyuanxuebuhuikaiche。

qiershiyingjianduanban。liru,shukongjichuangshangyigegongzhuangjiajudejiagongjingduwufamanzuyaoqiu,quexianyehuitongguozhanglianshengchanxianzhucengfangda,daozhizhenggehuanjiexiaolvhechanpinzhiliangdeyanzhongshouzhi。tongshi,shengchanshebeiduibutongruanjianxitongdeshiyingxingcha,yerangzongtixiaolvdashouchezhou。

硬件的能力,也是难啃的硬骨头。

彩票平台1958nian,zaizhongguodanshengleyazhoudiyitaishukongjichuang。danshicihouyouyulishiyuanyin,zhongguojichuangxingyexianruzhangda20duoniandechenji。yucitongshi,linguoribenquezaigongyehuadedaolushangtufeimengjin,zaijichuangjingdu、zhuansuhechanpinwendingxingshangjingyiqiujing,bingjianlilewanbeidechanyetixi。shizhijinri,guochanshukongjichuangrengranzaidaliangyikaojialianlaihuanqushichangzhanyoulv。

彩票平台qingshurutushuoyazhoudiyitaishukongjichuang——beijingdiyijichuangchangyuqinghuadaxuehezuoshizhidex53k1sanzuobiaoshukongjichuang

彩票平台ciwai,「ruanyingronghe」shirouxingzhizaodezuizhongyaochi——zaigaoduandeyingjianruguoguoyu「jiaoqing」,yuruanjiandejianrongxingcha,zhinengyueyongyue「si」,zuizhongbeigengxianjindeshebeitaotai。yingjiandeyanzhanduhelinghuodu,zaihendachengdushangjuedingleyitaorouxingxitongdeshoumingzhiheshengchannengli。

软件功能需要硬件平台得以实现,硬件设备又依赖软件系统进行串联。彩票平台而当下摆在中国制造业的现实困局是——软件开发尚未厘清头绪,硬件水平跟不上步伐,这个看似无解的莫比乌斯环,需要一点一点的撕开重组。

刚柔并济

用软件手段解决硬件问题,对非标设备进行调试和系统优化,是一种思路。

yiqingqijian,hagongdajiqirenjituan(hrg)gongpaichu5minggugan,yong6tianshijian,duiheilongjiangshengliangjiakangyizhuanxingdeshengchanqiyelinshicaigoude21taikouzhaoshengchanshebeijinxingdiaoshi,zheixieshebeixinghao、guigegeyoubutong,shenzhiyoubufenshi「ershou」。jingguodiaoshi,gong7tiaoshengchanxianshifangle2beidechanneng,bingjianghegelvcong80%tigaodaole95%。

反之,对标准化设备的系统进行个性化编辑,从而实现不同的功能,是另外一种「柔性」思路。

彩票平台zheileicaozuofangshiyibanshi: yongguifanhua、mokuaihuadeyingjianpingtaiquchengzaibuduandiedaideruanjianxitong,shixianduozhongpailiezuhe,shiyingbutongdechanpinshengchan。zheiyeshimuqianzuijingjidejiejuefanganzhiyi。

彩票平台youjingjishilihefengfujingyandeqiye,kenenghuiyicixingtourujuzidazao「gangroubingji」deweilaichejian,danzheibijingshijishaoshu。

彩票平台yigedianxinganli,shisanyizhonggongweiyuzhangshade「18haogongchang」,zheigehaochengyazhouzuidadezhinenghuazhizaochejianli,shixianleshengchanzhongren、shebei、wuliao、gongyidenggeyaosuderouxingronghe。8tiaozhuangpeixian,keyishixian69zhongchanpindehunzhuangrouxingshengchan;zai10wanpingfangmidechejianli,meiyitiaoshengchanxiankeyitongshihunzhuang30duozhongdejixieshebei,maliquankaikezhicheng300yichanzhi。

「18haogongchang」derouxingzhizaoshengchanxitongbaohanledaliangshujuxinxi: yonghuxuqiu、chanpinxinxi、shebeixinxi、shengchanjihuadeng。yituogongyehulianwangjiangzheixiedashujulianjieqilaibingtongguosanyidemesxitongchuli,nengzhidingzuiheshideshengchanfangan,zuiyoudeziyuanfenpei。

彩票平台ruanjianheyingjian,shirujinrouxingzhizaoxuyaoqitoubingjin,tongbupojiedeliangdananti。

彩票平台ruanjiandekaifabunengzhibuyuitbumen,xuyaoyouqiyezuigaojuecezhelaibushuhetuidong,guanchuanzhenggezuzhihegedazhineng,bingzaiyunyinghuanjieluodi。meiyigeshengchanhuanjietongguoxinxihuajianlilianjie,bingshixiankeshihua。

yingjiandebiaozhunhuaguanliyefeiyirizhigong。butongdeshebeiguifan,yidingchengdushangxuyaoxianghuronghejiejian——zheiyiweizhegongchang、qiye,shenzhidaliangxingyedouyaozhubuzouchushushiquan,shiyingxindeyouxiguize。quanqiuhuadejingjiwangluo,yeyaoqiucaipiaopingtaiyuguojijiegui,chongfenkaolvdaoguochanshebeiyujinkoushebei、lingbujianyijiruanjiandeketidaixinghejianrongxing,xingchengzhenggeshangxialiuchanyeliandeshutongheguifanhuaguanli。

「多个庙就多个鬼」——自动化生产是减法思维,越简单越稳定;而柔性制造既要做减法,也要做加法。彩票平台一条生产线上,用尽量少的设备和工具,实现生产更多产品的可能。

中体西用

qingmoyangwuyundongshiqi,yangwupaijiuyi「zhongxueweiti,xixueweiyong」zuoweizhidaosixiang——zhuzhangyizhongguolunchangjingshizhixueweihexinlinianheyuanzefangfa,yixifangxianjinjishuzuoweifuzhugongju。

zaixianjindexifangkejizhishu,yexuyaogenzhiyuzhongguodexianshiturang,zaizhongguozhihuidejiaoguanxiakaihuajieguo。

2018nian,weiletishenggongjuguanlidezidonghuashuiping,mouqiyechizishangbaiwanconghaiwaiyinjinlezhinengdaojulitiku,raneryunxingyiduanshijianquefaxianguanlixiaolvbushengfanjiang。

kufangguanlirenyuanzhishibadaojucongputongkuyirulezhinengku,danzhangmuguanlirengranshichuantongdeexcelbiaoge,bingmeiyouyuxinxixitongduijie,lingyongliuchengyerengranshizhizhidanju,ermeiyouzuodaoliuzhuanguochengzhongdeyouhua。

zheitaoangguixitongdailaideweiyiyoudianshi,quyonggaochudaojubuzaixuyaobantizipashangpaxia,yonganniujiejuecunquwenti。danshiquechangyinduofadexitongguzhangdaozhidaokukazhu,weixiurenyuanchichibunengdaoweiyingxiangshengchanjindu——zuizhong,zheixielitikulunweileanzhibuchangyong、gaojiazhidaojude「shuijingguancai」。

实现「工业4.0」版本的柔性制造,考验的绝不单是企业的技术能力,还有管理等各方面的软实力。而机制体制的问题,不是依靠引入一两项先进设备就能解决的——用一只昂贵的金鞍去配一匹老马,只会让老马更加不堪重负。

中国制造要真正实现从「刚」到「柔」的升级,也不能仅仅局限于对生产层面的关注,更需要全面开发上下游产业的柔性。彩票平台以企业的制造能力和柔性程度为基础,结合供应链和市场,把产品的各个功能部件独立成单个模块,实现其任意组合和输出,而不同模块的生产流程和生产成本都柔性可控。

erzheiyixiliefuzafenfandepailiezuhe,douzhinengyikaozhongguorenzijidezhihui,congmanzhangdeshijianguochengzhongquxunzhaodaan。

参考文献:

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  • [8] 黄旭东\陈卫福\康存锋《数控机床与数控技术》,2000
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  • [10] 新华社,白田田《「聪明工厂」助企业「精准复工」》,2020
  • [11] 徐建立,姚谌 《柔性制造技术的应用与实践浅析》,2019
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  • [13] 李子宸 《三一重工: 18号厂房试验,从大厂房到智慧工厂》,2015

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