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TrueView广告即将重出江湖?

摘要: 彩票平台 2010年,YouTube首创了TrueView广告,其精准的推送、高质量的广告和可跳过的选择设计一定程度上实现了广告主、视频平台和消费者之间的三赢。

图片来源@视觉中国

tupianlaiyuan@shijuezhongguo

wen | caipiaopingtaishigongzhangkang,zuozhe | tangyahui、hangyiran

彩票平台2010nian,youtubeshouchuangletrueviewguanggao,qijingzhundetuisong、gaozhiliangdeguanggaoheketiaoguodexuanzeshejiyidingchengdushangshixianleguanggaozhu、shipinpingtaihexiaofeizhezhijiandesanying。2015nian,trueviewguanggaobeigedashipinpingtaiyinruguonei。qizhong,aiqiyiyizenongfushanquandetruevviewguanggaohuobaoquanwang,huodelexiaofeizhedeguangfanhaoping。

raner,henkuai,trueviewguanggaozaiguoneijiuyanqixigule,gedashipinpingtainanjiantrueviewguanggao。pinglunfenxi,zai2015niandeshidian,yishipinpingtaiweishoudechanyelianquefazugoudedongligaijinguanggaotoufangtixiyishiyingtrueviewguanggao。

jinqi,trueviewguanggaozaiguoneiyouyouzhongchujianghudequshi。renrenshipinyijingzhengshitoufangletrueviewguanggao。jubizhesuozhi,youku、aiqiyidengtoubupingtaiyezaimiqiecuoshangtrueviewguanggaodezhongxinshangxian。

那么,是什么原因让TrueView广告重新获得国内视频平台的关注?TrueView会像在YouTube一般成为国内视频平台的主要收入来源吗?TrueView重出江湖的背后又隐藏着哪些中国国内市场的深层次变革?本文将尝试一一回答这些问题的答案。
图1:
人人视频的TrueView广告

tu1: renrenshipindetrueviewguanggao

只为真实观看付费

彩票平台trueviewguanggaoshiquanqiuzuidadeshipinwangzhanyoutubeshouchuangdeguanggaojizhi。trueview zhiyiguolaijiushi“zhenshiguankan”。zaiyoutubezhongzhanshideshipinguanggao,guanzhonghuiyouyigexuanzezai5miaohoutiaoguoguanggaodexuanxiang。zhiyoudangguanggaozhutoufangdeguanggaobeibofangdaoyidingshizhanghuozhebofangwanchengzhihoucaihuibeijizuoyicizhenshiguankan,jierxiangliuliangpingtaizhifuxiangyingdefeiyong。yejiushishuoruguoguanggaobeiyonghutiaoguo,toufangzhebuxuyaoxiangshipinpingtaifukuan。

彩票平台trueviewguanggaozaigoogleqiangdadezhanghutixiheshujufenxinenglidezhichixia,hendachengdushangshixianleguanggaozhu、yonghuheshipinpingtaizhijiandesanying。

彩票平台duiyuguanggaozhueryan,trueviewdexingshishidepinpaiguanggaoyenengyixiaoguojifei,keyibuduanyouhuatouzihuibaolv(roi)。guanggaozhuyouliyouxiangxinguankanguanggaochaoguo30miao(houyoutubegaiwei10miao)erbu“tiaoguo”deyonghushiduiguanggaohechanpinzhenzhengganxingqudeyonghu,weizheiyicipuguangfufeishizhidede,qieketongguogooglezhanghutixizhuizongyonghubingjixutoufangguanggaohuoyouhuiquan,houxuyouhengaogailvcuchengzhuanhua。xiangduide,xuanze“tiaoguo”deguanzhongdagailvshiduiguanggaomeixingqudeyonghu,guanggaozhubimianleweiwuxiaodeguanggaopuguangfufei,gengkejinyibuxihuayonghuhuaxiang,youhuaguanggaotoufangfangan。

duiyuyonghueryan,trueviewguanggaofuyuleguanzhonggengduodexuanzequan,dailailegenghaodeyonghutiyan。chuantongshang,guankantiepianguanggaoshiyonghuweimianfeikanshipinneirongsuofuchudedaijia。zheizhongfangshilixingshangkeyijieshou,danqueshijiangdileyonghuganshoudu。trueviewguanggaojiangyonghuduiguanggaodezhuyilijiazhiheshipinneirongbenshendezhiliangbolikai。guanzhongkeyizhijieduibuzhidekandeguanggaoxuanze“tiaoguo”,congerjianlilezhijiedeqingganfankui,youxiaotishengleyonghuduishipinguanggaojishipinpingtaidetiyangan。

duiyushipinpingtaieryan,trueviewguanggaokeyidailaigenggaodeshouru。biaomianshangkan,trueviewguanggaodefufeimoshihuishideshipinpingtaisunshihenduoguanggaopuguangshouru,danzaiyinruzugoudejingzhenghou,huifaxiantrueviewchufaleliangxingxunhuan,keyizhangqitigaoshipinpingtaideshouru。

彩票平台dangcunzailianggeyishangdeguanggaozhushi,pingtaikeyixuanzebaguanggaoweimaijibofangwanchenglvgenggaodeguanggaozhu,congerhuodegenggaodeshouru。erguanggaozhuweilezhengduoyouxiandeguanggaowei,jiuxuyaotigaoguanggaozhilianglaixiyingengduoguanzhongguankan,qiantishiguanggaopuguangdeshouyidayutishengguanggaozhiliangdechengben。

彩票平台guanggaodezhiliangtishenghexiaofeizhefuquandeguanggaoxingshizengjialexiaofeizhedetiyan,youzhuyutishengshipinpingtaideliuliangheyonghuzhanxing,jinyibutishengpingtaideguanggaojiazhi。congerxingchengle,zhengduoguanggaowei——tishengguanggaozhiliang——yonghutiyanzengjia——pingtailiuliangheyonghuzhanxingzengjia——guanggaoweidejiazhitisheng——zhengduoguanggaowei,zheiyangyigeliangxingxunhuan。guanggaoweijiazhidetishengheguanggaozhiliangdetisheng(guanggaobofangwanchengdutisheng)shideshipinpingtaideshourudeyihuodezhangqitisheng,zuyimibudepuguangshuliangjianshaozaochengdesunshi。

keyikanchu,youtubetongguoyinrutrueviewguanggaojizhi,chenggongshixianleguanggaozhu(guanggaoxiaoguo)、xiaofeizhe(yonghutiyan)heshipinpingtai(liuliangbianxian)sanzhedegongying。tongshi,zheiyiguochengzhonghaicuishengchuleyigefuchanpin,jiguanggaochuangyihezhiliangdetisheng。weilexiyingengduoguanzhongguankanguanggao,guanggaodeqian5miaoxuyaozhizuodejiweixiyinren,zheiyeyidingchengdushangtuidongleguanggaoxingyedefazhan。

YouTube钟情TrueView的背后

buguo,weilequanmianrenshitrueviewguanggao,youliangdianqiantitiaojianbixuzhichu:

彩票平台yishitrueviewshiugc(yonghushengchanneirong)pingtaiyoutubepobudeyidechuangxinxuanze。

彩票平台ershitrueviewchenggongdebeihoushiyituolegoogleqiangdadezhanghutixiheshujufenxinengli。

zhengruzhiqiantidaode,chuantongtiepianguanggaoshiyonghuweimianfeiguankanshipinneirongsuofuchudedaijia,jishipindeneirongchengbenhedaikuanchengbenyouguanggaozhuweiyonghuchengdan,daijiazeshiguanggaodezhanshi。yibaneryan,shipinneirongyuejingcai、yonghuguanzhuduyuegao,guanggaodezhanshixiaoguoyejiuyuehao,guanggaoweideyijiayejiuyuegao。danugcpingtaiyouyuchuangzuofangbingbuzhuanye,qineirongzhiliangnanyibaozheng,shideyonghuguanzhuduxiangduifensan,neirongredugengweizhangwei,chuantongtiepianguanggaodeshoumaifangshinanyibaozhenghengaodeyijia。

彩票平台zaizheizhongqingkuangxia,youtubexuanzeyinrutrueviewguanggao,jiangguanggaojiageyushipinneirongqiefenkai,zhijieyiguanggaoxiaoguo(bofangwanchengdu)shouquguanggaofeiyong,shiyizhongxiangdangyingjingyoupobudeyideshourufangshichuangxin。dangran,shihoulaikanzheizhongchuangxinshixiangdangchenggongde。youqishisuizheguanggaozhiliangdetisheng,guankanguanggaobenshenchengweileyizhongxiyinguanzhongdefangshi,yuugcneirongzhiliangdebuquedingxingxiangyingchengqu,chengweileyoutubedetese。

彩票平台lingyifangmian,googledeqiangzhanghuxitongheshujufenxinengliweitrueviewguanggaodiandinglejianshidejichu。yituogooglezaisousuo、youxiang、liulanqidenggefangmiandeshuju,youtubedeyixiangduijingzhundehuizhiyonghuhuaxiang,xiangqitoufangfuhexingqubiaoqiandeguanggaoneirong,congeryouxiaotigaoguanggaodebofangwanchengdu。zheiyinengligouchengletrueviewguanggaoqibudejishi。yishijingzhundeyonghudingxianghexiangyingdebofangwanchengduzhengmingleyoutubedemeitijiazhi,nenggoubuduanxiyinguanggaozhutoufangguanggao;ershijiangdileguanggaoxingshichuangxinsuoyaofuchudezhuanxingchengben,rangyoutubedeyishunlideguodudaotrueviewweizhudeguanggaoshouruliangxingxunhuandemoshizhong。ciwai,googlepingjiezishenjileidedaliangyouzhiguanggaokehuweiyoutubekuaisujianliqiguanggaoweidejingzhenggeju,yeshitrueviewnenggoushixingdezhongyaoyuanyinzhiyi。

TrueView广告为YouTube带来巨大收益

trueviewguanggaozaiyoutubedeguanggaozongzhanbigaodabaifenzhibashi。jinguangooglebingbugongbuyoutubedejutishuju,dangenjuemarketerguji,2018nian,trueviewguanggaozaiquanqiuweiyoutubedailaile72.2yimeiyuandeshouru,zhanyoutubedangnianzongshourude76%,shiyoutubeshourutongbizengzhang17%dezhongyaozhizhu。

同时,TrueView带来的广告效果提升也得到了广泛的认同。根据Google的统计,TrueView广告为YouTube增长了百分之十一的点击率,充分说明了用户在观看TrueView广告时会有更高的思考行动度而不仅仅停留在认知层面。对于观看了TrueView广告并且点击了广告链接的用户,其中很大一部分会在24小时内观看相关公司的其他视频广告,这些观众对于相关公司的行动呼吁(宣传销售)的参与度(比如购买与业务咨询行为),会五倍于其他观众。此外,TrueView广告在提升品牌知名度、触达度、参与度和影响力方面比起普通的贴片式广告提升了2.8倍。

zongdelaijiang,duibiyuqitadeguanggaoxingshizhuruqiantiepianshiguanggao,danchuguanggaoheputongdezhongchaguanggao,trueviewguanggaoyifangmianyouhualekehutiyan,weiyonghutigongleyigechenjinshidefenwei。lingyifangmianyequequeshishicujinleyonghudehudongcanyudu,weiguanggaofangheshipinpingtaidailailegaoeliyi。

中国视频平台对TrueView广告的尝试

国内各大视频平台曾在2015年尝试过TrueView广告 。当年,农夫山泉在爱奇艺视频平台投放了一支时长超3分钟的TrueView广告片。统计显示受众观看超过30秒以及完整看完广告的受众比例均远超50%,更是获得了470%的点击率提升。观众对于该广告反响热烈,网络评论上随处可见观众对于这一TrueView广告尝试的认可。
图2:
2015年农夫山泉TrueView广告的评论关键词词云

tu2: 2015niannongfushanquantrueviewguanggaodepinglunguanjianciciyun

lingyixiangguanyumou3cpinpaitrueviewguanggaodediaoyanyexianshi,trueviewguanggaodexiaoguoshifenxianzhu。you70%deguanzhongkanwanle30miaodeguanggao;guanggaozaipcduandedianjilv(ctr)shangshengle60%;tongshi,houduanyemiandepingjuntingliushijiantishengle15%。

彩票平台raner,trueviewguanggaoquemeinengyanxuzaiyoutubeshangdediwei,henkuaibianzaiguoneixiaoshengnijile。conggoogle trenddeshujufenxikeyikanchu,chule2015nianyouyiduanduiyutrueviewdesousuogaofengwai,guoneiduiyutrueviewdeguanzhuduyizhichuyubuwenbuhuodezhuangtai。neime,shishenmeyuanyindaozhiguanzhongrenkedeguanggaoxingshimeinengyanxuxiaquni?

资料来源:彩票平台_彩票平台排行-【首充包赔】

缺乏动力和能力的2015年

zonghegefangpinglunkeyikanchu,zai2015niandeshidian,yishipinpingtaiweihexindezhenggeguanggaoyewuliantiaodoumeiyouzugoudedonglidazaoshihetrueviewdeguanggaotoufangtixi。trueviewguanggaodetoufanggengduoshishipinpingtaideyicichangshi,zaizhengmingbuzhideguoduotouruhoubianguoduanzhongzhi。

zuoweiguanggaodetoufangmeijie,shipinpingtaishituiguangtrueviewguanggaodehexinzhuti。danzhongguodeshipinpingtaibutongyuyiugcweizhudeyoutube,doushiyipgc(zhuanyeshengchanneirong)youqishiyouzhideyingshijuweizhudaxiyinguanzhong。yituoyouzhineirong,shipinpingtaifenfenjianlile“mianfeineirong+shangyeguanggao”deshourumoshi。tongguobuduan“caigouneirong——xiyinliuliang——tigaoguanggaoweiyijia“laihuodekuaisudeshouruzengzhang。

彩票平台2013-2017nianjianshiguoneiwangluoshipinpingtaidegaosuzengzhangqi。zai4gwangluohezhinengshoujikuaisupukaidebeijingxia,shipinwangzhandeliuliangheyonghushizhangshuangshuangzengzhang,daozhiguanggaoshouruyi40%~55%degaosuzengzhang。guanggaoshouruguimocong2013niandebudao100yizengzhangdaole2017niande463yi。qizhong,chuantongtiepianguanggaozhandaolezongshourude60%yishang,yuewei300yiyuan。mianduirucigaosudezengzhang,shipinpingtaimeiyoubiyaochengdanyingshoufengxiancaiyongtrueviewguanggaolaiyouhuatiepianguanggaodetiyan。


资料来源:<a target=彩票平台_彩票平台排行-【首充包赔】

资料来源:彩票平台_彩票平台排行-【首充包赔】

此外,相较于采用TrueView广告优化传统贴片广告,视频平台在增加收入方面有着更多优先选项。其中,在2015年前后,视频平台最为关心的是付费会员的数量增长。受美国奈飞依靠用户订阅获得盈利的启发,视频平台自2013年开始力推付费会员彩票平台,并进一步加大了优质内容和IP的采买。在加大内容投入的同时,与内容更为契合且不影响会员彩票平台体验的原生广告形式得到了更大的重视,在广告收入中的占比不断增加,呈现出替代贴片广告之势。
资料来源:<a target=彩票平台_彩票平台排行-【首充包赔】

资料来源:彩票平台_彩票平台排行-【首充包赔】

zaishangshubeijingxia,chuyu2015nianshidiandeshipinpingtaiquefadongliweiyinrutrueviewguanggaolaigaigejiyoudetiepianguanggaotoufangtixi。ruqiansuoshu,trueviewguanggaojinruyonghutiyanheguanggaozhiliangdeliangxingxunhuanshiyoutiaojiande,yishijingzhundeyonghudingxiangtoufanglaibaozhengguanggaodebofangwanchengdu;ershiyouxiaodejingzhengjizhilaijiliguanggaozhiliangdetisheng。youtubenenggoushixingtrueviewshijiezhulegoogledezhanghutixiheguanggaokehuziyuan。guoneideshipinpingtaiwanshanzheixienenglixuyaofuchuyidingdetouru。erhenxianran,zaiguanggaoshourudafuzengzhangqiehuiyuantixizhubujianlidebeijingxia,weitrueviewzheiyizhongtiepianguanggaoxingshidechuangxinertouruchengbenshibuzhideqiemeibiyaode。

彩票平台zaishipinpingtaibulituideqingkuangxia,guanggaozhutongyangquefadonglihenenglilaituixingtrueviewguanggao。guanggaozhuzaiguanggaoxingshidechuangxinshangyibanchuyubeidongdediwei。duiyuguanggaozhueryan,youxiankaolvdeshiguanggaoxiaoguoerfeishengqian。trueviewguanggaoruguobeitiaoguotaiduo,kenengdabudaoyuqidepuguangxiaoguo,fanerburutiepianguanggaodepuguangxiaoguohao。tongshi,trueviewdeyingyongxuyaoyitaozhuanyedeshujutongjihebaojiatixi,busitiepianguanggaokeyiyanyongchuantongdedianshiguanggaodetixi。zaiquefashipinpingtaidezhulixia,guanggaozhuzishenyemeiyounenglijianlizheiyitaotixi。

duiyuguanggaodaili、meijiedaili、guanggaojiancejigoudengchanyeliandecaipiaopingtaiqiyeeryan,xindeguanggaoxingshiyiweizhexindejihui,danyeshijudadetiaozhan。zaichanyelianshangxiayoudouquefatuiguangdonglideqingkuangxia,chanyeliandecaipiaopingtaijigouwufachengdanqiguanggaoxingshidechuangxinrenwu。

彩票平台jinguangeandeyanjiubiaomingtrueviewyouzhehengaodeguanzhongjieshoudu,danduiyu2015niandeliyixiangguanfangeryan,yonghutiyanbingbushishouyaokaolvyinsu,yincitrueviewbingbujubeihenqiangdexiyinli。zhongguodeshipinchanyehuanjingyuyoutubesuomianduidejieranbutong,duiyuchanyeliandegefangeryan,trueviewjinshikexuanfangandeyizhong。jingguoyigejieduandechangshihou,trueviewguanggaobeizhengmingbushi2015nianshishipinpingtaizuijixudeyingshouchuangxinfangxiang。

2015到2020年的变化

jinru2020nianhou,trueviewguanggaoyouyicibeigedashipinpingtaisuoguanzhu。zai2015niandeshishuizhihou,zaiciguanzhutrueviewguanggaobiranshiqiwangnenggougenghaodeyunyongtrueviewguanggaodetedianlaihuodeyingshou。neime,shishenmebianhuadaozhitrueviewguanggaozaicihuidaoshipinwangzhandeshiyezhong?

彩票平台cong2015dao2020nian,shipinchanyedejiegoubianhua、xiaofeizhedeguanniangaibianhehongguanjingjichixuxiaxingshidaozhitrueviewzhonghuoguanzhudezhongyaoyinsu。

首先从视频产业来看,短视频平台的崛起可谓是改变了视频产业的格局。消费者的娱乐时间被短视频大量占据,致使视频平台提早触碰到了用户流量的增长瓶颈。而中国互联网流量红利的枯竭更是让视频平台雪上加霜,增长潜力遭到质疑。这就导致视频平台以烧钱换流量的模式难以为继,迫切需要开源节流获取盈利。从2019年9月30日发布的季度财报可以看出,阿里集团已经开始有意识收窄优酷等大文娱板块的亏损。
图:
头部视频平台的MAU(月活跃用户数)变化趋势(亿),注:
视频平台流量陷入瓶颈。

tu: toubushipinpingtaidemau(yuehuoyueyonghushu)bianhuaqushi(yi),zhu: shipinpingtailiuliangxianrupingjing。

盈利的关键在于开源节流。头部平台一方面加码自制剧、减少版权所有:彩票平台_彩票平台排行-【首充包赔】

彩票平台xiaofeizheguanniandezhuanbianshiyouxiaofeizhezishenhewaibuhuanjinggongtongsuzaode。congxiaofeizhezishenlaikan,suizhejibenshenghuoxiaofeidemanzuhekezhipeishourudezengduo,gongnengxingxiaofeizhuanxiangtiyanxingxiaofeishibirandequshi。renmenrenkeweilefuhezishenxuqiudeyouzhineirongfufei,youcihaichanshenglezhishifufeidengxinyetai。dantongshi,renmenduiyupohuaitiyandexingweiderongrenduzhengzaixunsuxiajiang。shipinhuiyuanshuliangdebuduanshangshengzhengshirenmenyuanyiweineirongfufeihegoumai(mianguanggao)tiyandezhenshifanying。

彩票平台tongshi,hulianwangliulianghonglidekujieshideduiyuxiaofeizhezhuyilidejingzhengzhujianchengweicunliangjingzheng,jingzhengdejiajushidegefangdouzaixiangfangshefayinghexiaofeizhedetiyanxuqiulaizhengduoxiaofeizhedezhuyili。buguyonghutiyandeyingshouchuangxinhuidaozhiyonghuduipingtaixinrendesangshinaizhiyonghuliushi,zuizhongkenengshideqifan,daozhiyingshoubushengfanjiang。《qingyunian》dechaoqiandianbojiushizaizengjiayingshouheyonghutiyanshangweinengzhangwopingheng,congeryinqileyonghudefangan。tengxunshipinfuzongcaiwangjuanyezaishengmingzhongbiaoshizheicichangshi“bugoutitie“。


图:
头部平台付费会员增长量

彩票平台tu: toubupingtaifufeihuiyuanzengzhangliang


资料来源:<a target=彩票平台_彩票平台排行-【首充包赔】

资料来源:彩票平台_彩票平台排行-【首充包赔】

第三个变化,宏观经济的下行,则使得广告主的偏好产生了显著变化。在经济下行的背景下,广告市场规模的增速下降明显。越来越多的广告主开始追求广告的“品效合一”,在寻求品牌曝光的同时更强调广告对营收的效果。这就使得传统的贴片广告(典型的品牌广告)不再受到广告主欢迎,视频贴片广告的市场规模快速下降(会员数量增加导致流量池减少也是部分原因)。这也进一步加剧了视频平台的营收压力。
图:
爱奇艺和腾讯的广告增速显著下降

彩票平台tu: aiqiyihetengxundeguanggaozengsuxianzhuxiajiang


资料来源:<a target=彩票平台_彩票平台排行-【首充包赔】

资料来源:彩票平台_彩票平台排行-【首充包赔】

zhengshizaizheiyangdebeijingxia,tongshijuyouyouxiuyonghutiyanheguanggaoxiaoguopinggunenglidetrueviewguanggaozhongxinshoudaoshipinpingtaideguanzhuyejiubuzuweiqile。tongshi,gedashipinpingtaiyonghudingxiangnenglidechengshuxianzhujiangdilecaiyongtrueviewdejihuichengben。zheijiushideshipinpingtaiyounengliheyiyuanweixunzhaogengqihedangxiahuanjingdeyingshoufangshidezuojinyibudechangshi。

TrueView广告的应用前景与创新

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彩票平台danjinguanruci,caipiaopingtairengrenweitrueviewguanggaodeyinruhuiduishipinpingtaidailaijidadegaibian。zheibujinshijiyuyoutubedechenggongjingyan,gengshiyouyutrueviewguanggaoyouzhehenhaodetuozhanxing,keyibuduanyuxinjishujiehe,xingchenggengyoujiazhideguanggaoxingshi。facebookzaozai2015nianjiutuichuleyuxinxiliujiehedeshipinguanggao,bingcaiyongletrueviewdejiesuanfangshi,zhiyoushuadaodeshipinguanggaobofangchaoguo3miao(zongji15miao)caijifei。twitteryeyuquniantuichuleshipinguanggao,bingcaiyongle6miaozhihoucaishoufeidetrueviewmoshi。zheixiechuangxindouweipingtaifangdailailexianzhudeshouyi。

zaizhangshipinlingyu,trueviewguanggaochulekeyiyingyongzaiqiantiepianhezhongchaguanggaodengchuantongxingshiwai,tongyangyunhanzhejudadechuangxinkeneng。

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彩票平台xiangduiqitaguanggaoxingshieryan,zheiyichuangxinmoshiyouzhexianzhudeyoushi。duibiqiantiepianguanggaohezhongchaguanggao,qiyouzheqingjingyuanshengxinghetrueviewtiyanxingdeyoushi。duibizhuzhongyuanshengxingdezhiruguanggao,qizaijuyouyidingyuanshengxingtongshi,yeyouzhexiaoguokehenglianghetoufangbianlixing(kesuishitoufang,wuxuzhizuoqijianzhiru)deyoushi。

duiyushipinpingtaieryan,trueviewyuqingjingzhongchajiehechanshengdelianghaoxiaoguobujinkeyimanzuguanggaozhuhexiaofeizheliangduanduiyuguanggaoxiaoguoheyonghutiyandexuqiu,gengkedafutigaoguanggaoweideyijianengli,dailaikeguandeshouru。mianduipangdadefeihuiyuanguanzhongqunti,trueviewxingshideqingjingzhongchayouzheshifenguangkuodeyingyongchangjing,zheizhengshicaipiaopingtaikanhaotrueviewzaizhangshipinlingyuyingyongqianjingdeyuanyin。

消费者主权时代的到来

zaibenwendezuihou,caipiaopingtaixiangzhichuyidian,qishiwulunshipinpingtaiyihezhongfangshiyingyongtrueviewguanggao,zheidoujiangshixiaofeizhedeyicishengyan。jibianshibugoumaihuiyuan,caipiaopingtaiyejijiangwuxuzairenshoushipinpingtaizhangda120miaodeqiantiepianguanggaole。

彩票平台xiaofeizhedetiyanheganshouzhengchengweishangjiashejichanpinhezhidingyingxiaocelvedezhongyaokaoliang,yingxiaoyanjiurenyuanjiangzheichengzhiwei“xiaofeizhefuneng“huozhe”xiaofeizhezhuquan“,yejiushishuo,zaizheichangxiaofeizheyushangjiadeboyizhong,xiaofeizhezhengzaizhangwoyuelaiyueduodezhudongquan。zaibujiudejianglai,caipiaopingtaihuikandaoyuelaiyueduorutrueviewguanggaodengjianguxiaofeizhetiyandeyingshoufangshibeiguangfanyingyong,ru2015niandeqianchangjizhijiangbukenengzaizhongxian。

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    duile,youlaogemenzhidaodongmanshijiezheigegongzhonghaolidebizhinaerlaidema?zuijinmishangledongman

    2019-04-24 23:09 via iphone
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    zheiyangtinghao

    2019-04-24 23:08 via iphone

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