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比尔·盖茨: 大规模疫苗接种可能要18个月才能开始

摘要: 彩票平台 比尔·盖茨称,为降低感染率所付出的经济代价是史无前例的,就业率下降的速度超过彩票平台以往的认知。检测对控制疾病并重新启动经济至关重要,眼下极为紧迫的是为研发新的检测工具及疫苗筹集资金。

钛媒体快讯 | 4月24日消息: 比尔·盖茨今日通过公众号“盖茨基金会”发布文章称,全球创新是减轻新冠病毒带来的伤害的关键,其中包括在检测、治疗、疫苗和政策上的创新。比尔·盖茨强调,彩票平台目前并未具备重新开放经济所需要的所有科学手段,他希望通过这篇文章告诉人们如何能够加速创新,以遏制病毒的传播并最大程度地减少对经济和福祉的损害。

他认为,随着夏天的到来,做到行为改变的一些地区将经历指数级下降。但是,当人们的行为恢复正常时,一些地方会出现疫情反弹,而一些则将回到之前的指数级增长。彩票平台计算机模型显示,如果有很多人无症状却具备传染性,一旦解禁就很可能让疫情卷土重来。

彩票平台tahaitidao,weilaidejumianjiangbixianzaigengjiafuzabingqiechayihuagengda,erjianceduikongzhijibingbingzhongxinqidongjingjizhiguanzhongyao。yanxiajiweijinpodeshiweiyanfaxindejiancegongjujiyimiaochoujizijin。“caipiaopingtairenweizaizheifangmiantouzishushiyimeiyuankeyibangzhucaipiaopingtaizuizhongjieshengshuwanyimeiyuan。”

至于大规模疫苗接种,他认为可能需要18个月才能开始,尽管也可能短至9个月或长至近2年。

以下为盖茨备忘录全文,来自公众号“盖茨基金会”:

新冠病毒的全球大流行使全人类都深受其害,对人们的健康、财富以及福祉都带来了巨大的影响。这就像一场世界大战,但不同的是,彩票平台都在同一条战线上。全人类可以通力合作,了解这种疾病并开发工具与之斗争。彩票平台认为全球创新是减轻伤害的关键。这包括在检测、治疗、疫苗和政策上的创新,以遏制病毒的传播并最大程度地减少对经济和福祉的损害。

这份备忘录分享了彩票平台对当前情况的看法,以及彩票平台如何能够加速这些创新。情况每天都在变化,有很多信息,其中许多都相互矛盾,而且你很难在诸多不同建议和想法中得出结论。听起来彩票平台似乎具备了重新开放经济所需要的所有科学手段,但事实并非如此。尽管这篇文章里的部分内容技术性很强,但彩票平台希望它能帮助人们理解正在发生的事情,明白彩票平台仍然急需的创新,并就应对这种大流行病做出明智的决定。

指数级增长和下降

彩票平台zaidaliuxingdediyijieduan,caipiaopingtaikandaoletazaixuduoguojiachengzhishujichuanbo,congzhongguokaishi,ranhoubianjiyazhou、ouzhouhemeiguo。meigeyuedeganranrenshudouzaibuduanfanbei。ruguorenmendexingweimeiyougaibian,neimedaduoshurendouhuibeiganran。tongguogaibianrenmendexingwei,xuduoguojiadeganranlvyiquyuwendingbingkaishixiajiang。

zhishuzengzhangbingbushizhiguande。ruguoshuoyou2%derenkoushoudaoganran,bingqieganranrenshumei8tianjiuhuizengjiayibei,neimedaduoshurenbuhuilijimingbai——zai40tianneidaduoshurenkoudouhuibeiganran。xingweigaibiandezuidahaochushikeyidadajiangdiganranlv,yinci,tabushimei8tianfanyibei,ershimei8tiandouhuixianzhujianshao。

彩票平台caipiaopingtaishiyongjibenchuanranshur0laijisuanyouduoshaoxindeganranshiyouxianqiandeganranyinqide。r0hennanceliang,dancaipiaopingtaizhidao,dangbinglishuxiajiangshitaxiaoyu1.0,dangbinglishushangshengshitadayu1.0。r0deweixiaochayiyehuidaozhifeichangdadebianhua。

ruguomeiciganrancongyinfa2gebinglijianshaodaoyinfa0.7li,neime40tianhou,ganrandebinglishujiangshiyuanlaide1/6,erbushi32bei,yejiushishuojianshaole192beidebinglishu。huanyizhongfangshisikao: jiasheyigeshequzuikaishiyou100geganranbingli,40tianhou,zair0jiaodideqingkuangxiahuiyou17geganranbingli,err0jiaogaodeqingkuangxiahuiyou3200geganranbingli。zhuanjiamenzhengzaibianlun,zaijiejinqiandaodixuyaozaiduozhangshijianneibaochir0zaihendishuipingcainengladibinglishu。

彩票平台xiangbijiaoeryan,zhishuxiajiangjiugengbuzhiguanle。xuduorendouhuijingyadefaxian,henduodifangdeyiyuan4yuefenhaichaofuheyunzhuan,erdaole7yuefenjiuchuxiandaliangkongchuang。turuqilaidebianhualingrennanyilijie,danshicongganrandezhishuxingzhilaikan,zheishibirande。

随着夏天的到来,做到行为改变的一些地区将经历指数级下降。但是,当人们的行为恢复正常时,一些地方会出现疫情反弹,而一些则将回到之前的指数级增长。未来的局面将比现在更加复杂并且差异化更大。

彩票平台反应过度了吗?

renmenyouliyoutichuyiwen,zheizhongxingweidegaibianshifouyoubiyao?henxianran,daanshikendingde。kenengyixiediquyongyuanbuhuichuxiandaliangdeganranhesiwangbingli,dancaipiaopingtaiwufayuzhihuishinaxiediqu。xingweidegaibiankeyirangcaipiaopingtaibimianshuyibaiwanjidesiwangheyiyuandechaofuheyunzhuan,houzhehuidaozhiyinqitayuanyinzaochengdesiwangzengjia。

为降低感染率所付出的经济代价是史无前例的。就业率下降的速度超过彩票平台以往的认知。许多行业都关停了。必须认识到这不仅仅是政府出台相关隔离政策的结果。当人们听说传染病正在广泛传播时,他们自己就会改变行为。像2019年那样强劲的经济增长在2020年是不可能看到的。

daduoshurenhuixuanzebuqushangban、buqucanguan、buqulvyou,yibimianzishenganranhuochuanranjiazhongdelaonianren。zhengfudeyaoqiuquebaoleyouzugouduoderengaibianlexingwei,yiquebaojibenchuanranshuxiaoyu1.0,zheiyangjianglaicaiyoujihuihuifuyixiehuodong。

fuyuguojiadeganranlvzhengzaixiajiangbingyijingkaishikaolvruhejiejin。jishizhengfufangkuanleduiminzhongxingweidexianzhi,yebuyiweizhemeigerendoukeyilijihuifushengchanshenghuo。zheixuyaohenduolianghaodegoutong,cainengrangrenmenlijieqizhongdefengxian,binganxinzhongfangongzuohuoxuexiao。zheishiyigexunxujianjindeguocheng,youxierenhuilijihuifuzhengchangshenghuo,erlingyixierenkenenghuimanmanlai。yixieguzhukenenghuidengjigeyuedeshijiancaiyaoqiuyuangonghuilaigongzuo。youxierenhuixiwangxianzhicuoshigengkuaijiechu,bingkenengxuanzeweifanguiding,zheijiangshisuoyourenmianlinfengxian。lingdaozheyinggulidajiazunshouguize。

国家之间的差异

此次大流行对所有国家的影响并不相同。中国是最早发现感染的地方。他们能够实施严格的隔离和广泛的测试来阻止大面积传播。第二波遭受影响的是那些比较富裕的国家,因为有来自世界各地的人会涌向那里。那些反应迅速、进行大量测试并采取隔离措施的国家避免了大规模感染。尽早采取行动的好处还意味着这些国家不必像其他一些国家那样令经济停摆。

检测能力的高低导致了许多差异化的存在。彩票平台无法打败看不见的敌人,检测对控制疾病并重新启动经济至关重要。

daomuqianweizhi,yinduheniriliyadengfazhanzhongguojiazaiyibaogaodequanqiuganranbinglizhongzhizhanhenxiaoyibufen。gaicijijinhuideshouyaorenwuzhiyijiushibangzhutigaozheixieguojiadejianceshuiping,yibiantamenlejiezijidezhuangkuang。xingyundehua,caipiaopingtaishangbulejiedeyixieyinsu,lirutianqihuoxuhuiyingxiangbingdudechuanbo,kenengfangzhizheixieguojiachuxiandaguimoganran。

彩票平台danshi,caipiaopingtaidejiasheyinggaishi,zheizhongjibingdebiaoxianzaimeigeguojiadoushiyiyangde。jinguantamendenianqingrenkoubilitebiegao——zheiwangwangyiweizhesiyuxinguanbingduderenshuhuigengshao——danjihukeyikendingdeshizheiyiyoushihuibeidixiao,yinweiyingyangbulianghuoaizibingbingduyijingxueruolexuduodishoururenqundemianyixitong。erqie,yigeguojiadejingjiyuebufada,jiuyuenanzuodaoxingweidegaibianyijiangdibingdudejibenchuanranshu。ruguonishenghuozaichengshipinminqu,meitianzuozhefeizhengshigongzuoyangjiahukou,nihuifaxianhennanbimianyutarenjiechu。ciwai,zheixieguojiadeweishengxitongnengliyuanyuanbuzu,suoyijishixiangyouxuyaoderentigongyangqizhiliaoyehenkunnan。

彩票平台lingrenbeiaideshi,fazhanzhongguojiadesiwangrenshukenengyuanyuangaoyufadaguojia。

  • 彩票平台需要学习什么

caipiaopingtaiduijibingdelejiejiangyouzhuyucaipiaopingtaikaifagongjuhezhidingzhengce。youhenduoguanjiandeshiqingcaipiaopingtairengranbumingbai,xuduoyanjiuzhengzaijiedazheixiewenti,qizhongjiubaokuozaixiyatudehuashengdundaxuejinxingdeyixiangyanjiu。zaizheixiewentishangdequanqiuhezuolingrenqinpei,daojinnianxiatiancaipiaopingtaiyinggaihuikandaohenduotupo。

  • 这种疾病是季节性的还是气候性的?

jihusuoyoudehuxidaobingdu(baokuoguanzhuangbingduzainei)doushijijiexingde。zheiyiweizhexiajiganranbinglihuijianshao,erzheikenenghuizaiqiujidaolaishishicaipiaopingtaifangsongjingti。danzheizhongjijiexingyougechengduwenti。yinweicaipiaopingtaikandaoxinguanbingduzhengzaiaodaliyahenanbanqiudeqitadifangchuanbo,erneilidejijieyucaipiaopingtaidexiangfan,suoyicaipiaopingtaizhidaozheizhongbingdubuxiangliuganneimejuyoujijiexing。

  • 有多少无症状感染者携带了足以感染他人的病毒?

那些康复后还带有残留病毒的人,他们的传染性有多强?计算机模型显示,如果有很多人无症状却具备传染性,一旦解禁就很可能让疫情卷土重来。关于有多少感染来自这些无症状感染者有很多分歧,但彩票平台知道很多人感染病毒后没有症状,而其中一些人最终传播了病毒。

  • 为什么年轻人感染后重症的风险比较低?

lejiezheizhongdongtaijiangyouzhuyucaipiaopingtaipinggukaixuedefengxian。zheishiyigefuzadewenti,yinweijishinianqingrenbujingchangfabing,tamenrengkenengjiangjibingchuanbojiqitaren。

  • 出现什么症状表明你应该接受检测?

彩票平台yixieguojiabaduidazhongdetiwenjiancezuoweichubushaichadegongju。ruguozheizhongfangfayouzhuyucaipiaopingtaifaxiangengduodeqianzaibingli,caipiaopingtaikeyizaijichanghedaxingjihuishangguangfanshiyongta。caipiaopingtaixuyaozhenduigaofengxianrenqunjinxingjiance,yinweicaipiaopingtaimeiyouzugoudeziyuanjiancemeigeren。

  • 从事哪些活动导致感染的风险最大?

renmenhuiwencaipiaopingtaibimiandianwaimai、pengchumenbashouhuoshiyonggonggongcesuoshifoukeyizuidachengdudijiangdifengxian。caipiaopingtaiyexiwangcaipiaopingtaiyoudaan。renmenxuyaoduibutongleixingdejujijinxingpanduan,lirushangkehuocanjiajiaotangjuhui,shifouxuyaobaochijuli。zaiweishengtiaojianbuhaodedifang,bingduyehuitongguobeiganranzhedefenbianchuanbo。

  • 谁最容易感染这种疾病?

彩票平台caipiaopingtaizhidao,laonianrenzhongzhenghesiwangdefengxianyaodadeduo。erzhenduixingbie、zhongzuhebingfazhengdeyingxiangdeyanjiugongzuohaizaijinxingzhong。

  • 盖茨基金会的角色

彩票平台tongchangqingkuangxia,gaicijijinhuijiangqiyibanyishangdeziyuanyongyujianshaochuanranbingzaochengdesiwang。zheixiejibingzhengshidaozhipinqiongguojia5suiyixiaertongsiwanglvbifadaguojiagao20beideyuanyin。caipiaopingtaitouziyanfazhenduizheixiejibingdexinliaofaheyimiao,bingnuliquebaojiangtamentigongjimeiyigeyouxuyaoderen。zheixiejibingbaokuoaizibing、nveji、jiehebing、jisuihuizhiyanhefeiyan。meidangxiangaibola、feidianxingfeiyanhuozhaikazheiyangdedaliuxingbingchuxianshi,caipiaopingtaidouhuiyuzhengfuhesiyingbumenhezuo,bangzhujianlifengxianmoxingbingdiaodongziyuankaifaxindegongjulaiezhiyiqing。zhengshijiyuzheixiejingyan,caipiaopingtaizai2015niandetedyanjiangzhonggongkaibiaoshi,shijiehaimeiyouzuohaoyingduihuxidaochuanranbingdezhunbei。jinguanzuodehaibugou,danyouyixiezhunbeigongzuohaishiqidongle,baokuojianliliuxingbingfangfanchuangxinlianmeng(coalition for epidemic preparedness innovation,cepi),caipiaopingtaijiangzaixiamianyouguanyimiaodebufenduicijinxingtaolun。

yiqingbaofahou,caipiaopingtaizhengzaiyunyongsuoyoudezhuanyezhishi,zaimeigelingyuzhongxunzhaozuihaodexiangfa,bingquebaotamendedaoquansutuijin。henduogongzuodouzaijinxingzhong,youchaoguo100getuanduizhengzaiyanfaxindezhiliaofangfa,erlingwai100getuanduizhengzaigongguanyimiao。caipiaopingtaizizhuleqizhongyibufen,danduisuoyouxiangmudejinzhandoumiqieguanzhu。meigexiangmudeguanjianbujinzaiyuqichenggongdekenengxing,haiyaokantanengfoushixianguimohualaibangzhuzhenggeshijie。

眼下极为紧迫的是为研发新工具筹集资金。彩票平台认为在这方面投资数十亿美元可以帮助彩票平台最终节省数万亿美元。彩票平台距离最终用上疫苗的时间每增加一个月,经济就会晚一个月恢复正常。但是,尚不清楚各国将如何合作来协调资金。有些国家可以直接寻求私营部门的帮助,但会要求其公民享有优先权。各国政府、世界卫生组织、私营部门和盖茨基金会就如何协调各方的努力进行了很多探讨。

  • 用创新战胜敌人

diercishijiedazhanqijian,baokuoleida、yuleihepoyimimazaineidedaliangchuangxinshizhanzhengdeyigengkuaidijieshu。daliuxingbingyejiangruci。caipiaopingtaijiangchuangxinfenweiwugelingyu: zhiliaofangfa、yimiao、jiance、jiechuzhezhuizonghefugongfuchanzhengce。ruguozaizheixielingyubunengqudetedingjinzhan,caipiaopingtaijiangwufahuifuzhengchanghuozuzhibingduchuanbo。xiamian,caipiaopingtaijiangjiumeigelingyuzuoxiangxijieshao。

治疗方法

每周你都会了解到一些新的治疗方法正在进行测试,但绝大多数都会失败。尽管如此,彩票平台仍乐观地认为,其中一些治疗方法将能够真正地减轻疾病负担。有些方法在发达国家要比在发展中国家更容易开展,还有一些则需要更多的时间才能扩大规模。很多疗法要到夏天或秋天才可能落地实施。

彩票平台ruguozai2021niandechuntian,renmenfenfenqucanjiadaxingdegonggonghuodong,biruzaitiyuchangjubandebisaihuoyanchanghui,neijianghuishiyinweicaipiaopingtaiyouleyigeqijibandeliaofa,rangrenmenyoulezaicichumendexinxin。muqianhennanjichujingquedebiaozhun,caipiaopingtaicaiceshi95%zuoyou,yejiushishuo,caipiaopingtaixuyaoyizhongyouxiaolvdadao95%deliaofa,zheiyangrenmencainengyouzugoudeanquanganqucanyudaxinggongkaihuodong。jinguanmouzhonglianheliaofakenengdadao95%yishangdeyouxiaoxing,danzheijinjinshizhongkenengxing,caipiaopingtaiwufazhiwangta。ruguocaipiaopingtaizuihaodezhiliaofangfayebunengjiangsiwangjiangdi95%dehua,caipiaopingtairengxuyaoyimiaocainenghuifuzhengchangshenghuo。

youyizhongbufuhechangguiyaowudingyideqianzailiaofashicongxinguanfeiyankangfuzheshenshangcaijixueye,quebaotameiyouguanzhuangbingduheqitaganran,ranhoujiangxuejiangtigongjiqitabingren。zheigelingyudelingxiangongsizhengzaigongtongnulizhidingyigebiaozhunhuafangan,yijianyanxuejiangliaofashifouyouxiao。tamenbixujiancemeigebingrendexueyelaiquerenkangtideqiangdu。zheizhongfangfadeyigebiantishijiangxuejiangnongsuochengyizhongchengweichaomianyiqiudanbaidehuahewu,keyibiweijingchulidexuejianggengrongyiyegengkuaiditigongjibingren。gaicijijinhuizhengzaizhichixuduozheiyilingyudelingxianqiyejiasupinggujincheng,bingzaigaifanganzhengmingyouxiaodeqingkuangxiazuohaoguimohuadezhunbei。zheixiegongsikaifalexuejiangjiqirenchengxu(plasma bot)bangzhuyikangfuhuanzheweizheiyizhiliaofanganjuanxianxuejiang。

另一种可能的疗法是发现人体免疫系统所产生的抗体,这些抗体对新冠病毒是最为有效的。一旦彩票平台找到这些抗体,就可以制造它们并用于治疗或作为预防疾病的方法(通常被称为“被动免疫”)。这种抗体疗法也很有可能起作用,虽然还不确定彩票平台能够生产多少剂量,这取决于每一剂需要多少抗体。到2021年,彩票平台可能能够生产出10万甚至数百万制剂。最好的情况下生产制剂的准备时间在7个月左右。彩票平台资助的伙伴正在比较不同的抗体,以确保那些最好的能在产能有限的情况下被优先生产。

youyileiyaowubeichengzuo“kangbingduyaowu”,keyizuzhibingdudezuoyonghuofanzhi。zhiyaoxingyeyijingzhizaochushenqidekangbingduyaowulaibangzhuaizibingbingduxiedaizhe,jinguanjianliyigeyouxiaodesanlianyaowuliaofadepangdashujukuyonglejishiniandeshijian。duiyuxinguanbingdu,zheiyileibiedelingxianhouxuanyaowushilaizijilidegongsideruidexiwei,tamuqianzhengzailinchuangshiyanzhong。ruidexiweibenshiweiyingduiaibolabingdueryanfachenggongde,ruguozhengmingduixinguanfeiyanyouxiao,neimezexuyaodafukuodashengchanguimo。

gaicijijinhuizuijinyaoqiuzhiyaogongsikaifangtamenzhengzaikaifadekangbingduyaowuguanxian,yibianneixiededao“(xinguanfeiyan)zhiliaojiasuqi”(therapeutics accelerator)zizhudeyanjiurenyuannenggoushaixuankelvxianjinxingrentishiyandeyaowu。zheixiezhiyaogongsidouhenkuaizuochulehuiying,yincimuqianyouyizhangchuanyoudaishaixuandekangbingduyaowu。

lingyileiyaowudegongzuoyuanlishigaibianrentiduibingdudefanyingfangshi。qianglvkuijiushuyuzheileiyaowu。gaicijijinhuizhengzaizizhuyixiangshiyan,jiangzai5yuedizhiqianzhengmingtashifouduixinguanbingduyouxiao。muqianlaikan,tadeliaoxiaobuda。lingyizhonggaibianrenleiduibingdufanyingdeyaowubeichengweimianyixitongdiaojieji,zheixieyaowuduiyanzhongdewanqizhongzhengzuiyouliaoxiao,gailingyudesuoyougongsidouzhengzaiqingqisuonengjinxingshiyan。

疫苗

yimiaowanjiudeshengmingbilishishangrenheqitagongjudouduo。cengjingzaochengmeinianshubaiwanrensiwangdetianhua,tongguoyimiaobeigenchu。xinkaifadeyimiaozaijianshaoertongsiwangrenshufangmianfahuileguanjianzuoyong,shiertongsiwangrenshucong2000niandemeinian1000wanjianshaodaojintiandemeinianbudao500wan。

caipiaopingtaibunengzhijixiwangyuqijibandezhiliaofangfa。yaoxiangrangshijiehuifudaoxinguanfeiyanchuxianzhiqiandezhuangtai,weiyidebanfajiushiyonggaoxiaodeyimiaolaiyufangzheizhongjibing。

遗憾的是,一种新疾病的疫苗开发通常需要5年以上。彩票平台这个流程可以被细分为: a)制造候选疫苗;b)动物试验;c) 对小规模人群进行安全试验(1期临床试验);d) 对中等规模人群进行安全和有效性试验(2期临床试验); e)对大规模人群的安全和有效性试验(3期临床试验);f)在每个国家进行疫苗注册时同步进行最终监管审批和生产制造准备。

通过在做临床安全及有效性试验的同时,平行开展动物试验以及产能彩票平台,研究人员可以从中节省一些时间。即便如此,没有人能提前知道哪种疫苗会有效,所以彩票平台需要资助若干疫苗开发,以便它们都能够全速推进。许多疫苗最终都会失败,因为它们无法产生足够强大的免疫反应保护人体。通过观察抗体的产生,彩票平台预计将在三个月内从人体测试中得到答案。彩票平台特别值得关注的是,疫苗是否能够保护老年人,因为他们的免疫系统对疫苗的反应并不是很理想。

anquanwentixianranshifeichangzhongyaode。jianguanjigouduiyuyimiaodeanquanxingyaoqiufeichangyange,yifangmianshiweilebimianfuzuoyong,lingyifangmianyeshiweileguangfandibaohuyimiaodeshengyu。ruguoyigeyimiaochuxianzhongdawenti,renmenjiuhuiyinciduirenhemianyijiezhongyouyubujue。shijiegedidejianguanjigoujiangxuyaogongtongnuliyijuedingxuyaoduoshaoanquanxingshujucainengpizhunxinguanfeiyanyimiao。

盖茨基金会和其他组织在2015年共同呼吁对大流行病防范工作进行投资,并随后创建了流行病预防创新联盟。虽然资源相当有限,但该联盟帮助推进了新方法,可以用于这一次大流行病的疫苗开发。CEPI正在加大投入研究RNA疫苗,这种方法一直获得盖茨基金会的支持。现在,有三家公司正在采用这种疫苗开发手段。第一个开始人体试验的疫苗是来自Moderna的RNA疫苗,该疫苗于3月份开始了1期临床安全性评估。

彩票平台rnayimiaoyuchuantongyimiaoyouxianzhuchayi。liru,liuganyimiaozhonghanyoushaoliangliuganbingdu,errentidemianyixitonghuixuehuigongjizheixiebingdu,zheijiushirentihuodemianyidefangfa。rnayimiaobingfeizhushebingdupianduan,ershijishentitigongchanshengdaliangbingdupianduanfubensuoxudeyichuanmima。dangmianyixitongkandaozheixiebingdupianduan,tahuixuexiruhegongjitamen。rnayimiaobenzhishangjiushibarentibianchengzijideyimiaoshengchanbumen。

现在还有至少5种项目看起来很有希望,它们使用其他方法来“教会”免疫系统识别和攻击病毒感染。CEPI 和盖茨基金会将继续跟踪世界各地的项目,以确保最有前景的疫苗能获得资源。一旦疫苗准备就绪,彩票平台的合作伙伴全球疫苗免疫联盟(Gavi)将确保低收入国家也能获得疫苗。

彩票平台yimiaoshiyandeyidatiaozhanshi,shiyansuoxudeshijianqujueyuzhaodaogaoganranlvdeshiyandidian。erzaishezhishiyanzhandianbingxunqiujianguanjigoupizhundeguochengzhong,gaidideganranlvkenengyijingxiajiang,ershiyanxuyaodaliangderencanyu。julilaishuo,jiasheyuqideganranlvshimeinian1%,neiniyaokaizhandeshiyanjiuyuqiyou50renzaimeiyoujiezhongyimiaodeqingkuangxiabeiganran。neime,weilezai6geyueneidedaojieguo,zheigeshiyanjiuxuyao10,000rencanyu。

caipiaopingtaidemubiaoshixuanzeyidaoliangzhongzuihaodeyimiao,bingweiquanshijierenkoujinxingyimiaojiezhong——ruguoshidanjiyimiao,neimejiuxuyao70yiji;ruguoshiliangjiyimiao,zewei140yiji。quanshijiedoujiangzhengxianghuodezheixieyimiao,yincishengchanyimiaodeguimojiangshiqiansuoweiyoude,henkenengxuyaoduojiagongsicanyu。

彩票平台常被问及大规模疫苗接种何时可以开始。和美国权威的公共卫生官员们的估计一样,彩票平台认为可能需要18个月,尽管也可能短至9个月或长至近2年。彩票平台关键在于3期试验的时长,这将充分确保安全性和有效性。

彩票平台dangshoupiyimiaobeichanchushi,jianghuichuxianyigewenti: sheiyinggaiyouxianjiezhongyimiao。lixiangqingkuangxia,quanqiuyinggaijiucidachenggongshi。danjianyucunzaitaiduoxianghujingzhengdeliyiguanxi,zheizhonggongshibutaikenengfasheng。neixietigongzijindezhengfu、jinxinglinchuangshiyandeguojia,yijiyiqingzuiyanzhongdedifang,douhuitichutamenyinggaidedaoyouxianjiezhongdeliyou。

检测

迄今为止,对新冠病毒的所有检测都包括鼻拭子采样并用聚合酶链式反应分析仪(PCR仪)对样本进行处理分析。盖茨基金会投资的一项研究证明了让患者自己在鼻腔前端采样,与医生将拭子一直深入咽喉采样一样准确。彩票平台资助的伙伴也正在努力研发低价且能大规模生产的拭子,这种新型拭子会和那些供货不足的拭子一样好用。这种自查工具更加快捷,也避免了医护人员每次检测前都需要更换防护装备,监管机构应该批准在家自测,不用都去医疗中心。PCR检测非常灵敏——它通常会在患者出现症状或感染其他人之前就显示你已经感染了病毒。

彩票平台meigeguojiadejianceshuliangyizhishirenmenguanzhudejiaodian。yixieguojia,biruhanguo,zaitigaojiancenenglifangmianzuodefeichanghao。danshi,dankanjianceshuliangbenshenbingbunengshuomingtamendedaoleyouxiaoshiyong,haibixuquebaoyouxianduishidangrenqunjinxingjiance。liru,yiwugongzuozheyinggaikeyilijidedaojiancejieguolaiquedingtamenshifounenggoujixugongzuo。erzaicaipiaopingtaiyouzugoudenengliweimeigeyouzhengzhuangderentigongjiancezhiqianbugaijianceneixieweichuxianzhengzhuangderen。ciwai,jiancejieguoyinggaizai24xiaoshineichulai,zheiyangjiukeyijinkuaizhidaonishifouyaojixugelizijiheneixieyunizhuzaiyiqideren。meiguoyouxiedifangxuyao7tianyishangcainengdedaojiancejieguo,zheidadajiangdilejiancedejiazhi,zheiyangdezhihoushibunengjieshoude。

PCR仪有两种类型: 大批量处理机和小批量处理机,两种都有各自适用的场景。大批量处理机提供了大量的检测能力,小批量处理机有利于在一个小时内得到检测结果。原有的以及新加入的PCR仪器制造商都在竭尽所能地生产。加大产能并充分利用已有的仪器将会增加检测能力。盖茨基金会也正在与制造商讨论如何以不同的方法运行这些大机器从而让它们的效率提高一倍以上。

另一种正在开发的检测方法叫做快速诊断检测(Rapid Diagnostic Test, RDT)。这种检测就像家用验孕棒一样。你可以用PCR检测的方法进行鼻拭子采样,但不用送到检测中心,只要把样本放入容器中,再把液体倒在试纸上。如果检测到病毒,试纸就会变色。这种快速检测可能在几个月后就可以使用了。尽管可能不如PCR检测一般灵敏,但对于那些已经出现症状的人来说,这种检测方法还是相当准确的。你仍然需要向当地政府报告检测结果,因为他们仍需要借此了解疾病发展趋势。

xuduorenyezaitanlunxueqingjiance,zheizhongjiancefangfashiliyongxueyeyangbenlaijiancerentishifouhanyouduikangbingdudekangti。ruguohanyoukangti,zheijiuyiweizheniyijingbaoluyubingdule。raner,zheizhongjiancefangfazhinengzaijibinghouqicainengjiancechuyangxing,suoyiwufabangzhurenmenjuedingshifouyaozizhugeli。ciwai,daomuqianweizhisuoyoujiancefangfadoucunzaiyoujiayangxingdewenti。chufeicaipiaopingtaiyijinglejieshenmeshuipingdekangticaishijuyoubaohuxingde,bingqieyanfachuyigejihumeiyoujiayangxingdejiancefangfa,fouzejiyuxianyoudexueqingjiancejiugaosurenmenbuyaodanxinganranshicuowude。yucitongshi,xueqingjiancejiangbeiyonglailejiesheikeyixianxuejijibingdongtai。

彩票平台xuduoguojiazaijizhongpcrjiancenengliyongyujinjihuanzhefangmianzuodehenhao。daduoshuguojiadezhengfuzaizheiyijinchengzhongdoufahuizhehexinzuoyong。meiguomuqianhaimeiyouyitaokeyiquebaojiancenenglihelifenpeidezhidu。yixiezhouzhengfuyijingjieru,danjishizaizuodezuihaodezhou,yemeiyouwanquanzhangkongjiancenenglidefenpei。

dangyiguokaolvkaifangbianjingshi,jiancejiangbiandejiqizhongyao。nihuixiwangjianceyueduoyuehao,yibiankandaofabingredianquyu,bingqienenggouzaishujujizengzhiqiantongguogaibianzhengcejinxingganyu。nibuxiwangdengdaoyiyuanrenmanweihuan、siwangrenshushangshengshicaikaishizhuzhongjiance。

彩票平台jibenshangyouliangzhongqingkuangyinggaijieshoujiance,yizhongshiyouzhengzhuangderen,lingyizhongshirenheyujiancechengyangxingbingliyouguojiechuderen。lixiangqingkuangshi,shangshudeliangleirenyuandoukeyizaijiajiance,erwuxuqianwangyiliaozhongxin。nirengrankeyizaiyiliaozhongxinjinxingjiance,danzuijiandandefangfashirangdaduoshurenzaijialiwanchengjiance。yaoshixianzheiyidian,zhengfubixujianliyigewangzhan,gongrenmenfangwenbingtijiaobaokuozhengzhuangzaineidexiangguanqingkuang。nihuijiucidedaoyigeyouxianjipaixu,zuihouyingquebaosuoyoujiancezhongxinkeyigenjuyouxianjitigongkuaisudejiancejieguo。genjuyouzhengzhuangyuceganrandezhunquechengdu、jiancechuyangxingderenshu,yijiyigerentongchangyouduoshaojiechuzhe,nikeyijisuanchuchulizheixiebinglisuoxuyaodeziyuan。muqian,juedaduoshudeguojiadoujiangshiyongqisuoyoudejiancenenglilaiyingduixinguanbingli。

qiyejiangqingxiangyuweiyuangonghuokehugoumaijianceshebei。jiudianhuoyoulunyunyingshangyexiwangnenggoujiancemeigekeren,jishitamenmeiyouzhengzhuang。tamenxiwanghuodepcryihuokuaisuzhenduanjiancegongjuyijinkuaihuodejiancejieguo,erzheixiegongsichujiahengao——yuangaoyugonggongweishengxitong——yincizhengfubixuquedingheshicaiyouzugoudejiancenenglikeyiyunxuzheiyangdeqingkuangfasheng。

yizhongjiasheshi,xuyaojieshoujiancederendouhuibazijihejiarengeliqilai。youxiezhengfuduicijinxingyangedejianguan,eryouxiezhengfuzejiandandishexiangrenmenhuizifazunxungelijianyi。lingyigewentishi,ruguobunengzaijiageli,zhengfushifounenggoutigonggelidechangsuo。dangjialiyoulaorenshi,zheiyidianyouqizhongyao。

接触者追踪

caipiaopingtaizaijiancebufentidao,weiceshijieguochengyangxinghuanzhedemiqiejiechuzhetigongjianceshigongzuozhongdianzhiyi。ruguoninenggouxunsunadaozheixierendemingdan,quebaotamenkeyiyouxianjinxingpcrjiance (zheixiejiancezugoulingminkeyizhenbiechujinqiganranhuanzhe),neimezaichuanranqitarenzhiqian,zheixierenjiunenggoujinxingzicaipiaopingtaigeli。zheishizuduanbingduchuanbodelixiangfangshi。

baokuozhongguo、hanguozaineideyixieguojiayaoqiuhuanzhetongguoshoujigpsxinxihuoxiaofeijilu,laitigongtamenguoqu14tianxingzongxinxi。erzailingwaiyixieguojia,nikeyitongguoxiazaiyixieyingyongchengxulaibangzhunihuiyizhiqianquguodedifang。ruguonidejiancejieguochengyangxing,nikeyizizhuchakanxiangguanlishijilu,huoxuanzefenxiangjiqianlaixunwenniguoqujiechushideren。

henduozhururangshoujitancezhouweishoujideshuzijiejuefanganzhengzaibeitichulai(zheijiangshejidaoshiyonglanya,yijifasongyigerenerwufatingdaodeshengyin,laiyanzhengliangbushoujishifoulidehenjin)。zheigefangfashiruguoyourenjiancejieguochengyangxing,neitadeshoujikeyijiqitashoujifasongxinxi,rangzheixieshoujidechiyouzheyejinxingjiance。ruguodaduoshurendouziyuananzhuangzheiyangdeyingyongchengxu,zheihuoxunenggouyouxiebangzhu。yigebuzuzhichuzaiyu,nibuyidingyaotongguozhijiejiechuganrantaren——nikenenghuijiangbingduliuzaiwutibiaomian,erzheiyifangfahuiyilouzheizhongchuanbofangshi。

caipiaopingtairenweihenduoguojiajiangcaiqudeguodefangshi,tamenhuixunwenmeiyigejiancejieguochengyangxingdehuanzhe,bingshiyongshujukulaiquebaoduisuoyoujiechuzhedoujinxingzhuizong。tongguoyanjiuganrandemoshi,lailejienalifengxianzuigao,naxiezhengcekenengxuyaogaibian。

zaideguo,ruguoyourenjiancejieguoquerenweiyangxing,yishengbixuyifatongzhidangdiweishengbumen。yishengbixutigonghuanzhedegerenxinxi,baokuoxingming、dizhi、shoujihaomadeng,yibianweishengbumennenggoulianxidaociren,bingquebaotamenjinxingzicaipiaopingtaigeli。

suihou,dangdiweishengbumenkaishijinxingjiechuzhezhuizong。tamenhuiyuganranzhegoutong,zhaochutamenguoqujizhoudejiechuzhe,lianxizheixierenbingrangtamenjinxingzicaipiaopingtaigeliyujiance。zheizhongfangshijiyilaiganranzhezhunquedibaogaotamendejiechurenqun,youyaokanweishengbumenshifouyounengliduimeiyigerenjinxingzhuizong。jishizaiquezhenbinglishuhenshaodeqingkuangxia,changguiweishenggongzuozheyebukenengwanchengzheiyiqie。meiyigeweishengxitongdouyaoxiangbanfapeibeigengduorenyuan,yibianjishiwanchengzheixianggongzuo。meiyiweicongshicigongzuoderenyuanbixujieshouxiangyingdepeixun,bingyaoqiuqiduixiangguanxinxibaomi。yanjiuzhehuibeiyaoqiutongguoshujukufaxianganrandemoshi,tongshixuyaozaiciqiangdiaoyinsibaohucuoshi。

重新开放

大多数发达国家将会在未来两个月内进入疫情的第二阶段,从某种意义上来说,这个阶段很容易描述——半正常状态。人们可以外出,但并不像以前那样频繁,也不会去人多的地方。想象一下餐馆中人们隔桌就餐、飞机上每排中间的座位是空出来的场景,或者学校开学但是不会出现一个体育场坐满七万多人的情况。人们会做一些工作,有一些消费,但不像大流行病到来之前他们所做的那样。总之,这段时间人们的生活会受到影响,但也不像第一阶段那么不正常。

duihuodongxianzhidefangkuanyinggaizhujiandiaozheng,zheiyangcaipiaopingtaijiukeyiguancha,zengjiajiechuchengdushifouhuidaozhiganranrenshudezengjia。geguokeyixiangqitayongyouqiangdajiancetixicongernengjishifaxianwentideguojiaxuexi。

彩票平台weiruanzhongguoshizhubufugongdeyigelizi,tayoudagai6200mingyuangong。muqianyoudayuebanshudeyuangonghuidaolegongzuogangwei。gongsijixuweixiwangzaijiabangongdeyuangongtigongzhichi,bingyaoqiuyouzhengzhuangderendaizaijiali。gongsiyaoqiuyuangongpeidaikouzhao、tigongxishouye,bingjinxinggengmijideqingjiexiaodugongzuo。jishizaigongzuozhong,yeyaoqiuyuangongbaochiyidingshejiaojuli,teshuqingkuangxiacaiyunxuchucha。duiyufugongfuchan,zhongguoyizhibaochijinshendetaidu,jiezhimuqianmeiyouchuxianmingxiandeyiqingfandan。

jibenyuanzeyinggaishiyunxuneixieduijingjihuorenminfuliyoujiaodahaochuqieganranfengxianjiaoxiaodehuodong。raner,dangnishenruxijie、shenshijingjifangfangmianmianshi,qingkuanghenkuaijiuhuibiandefuzaqilai。niwufajiandandeshuo“keyizuozheige,danbunengzuoneige”,yinweixiandaijingjishifeichangfuzaqiejinmilianjiede。

彩票平台julilaishuo,cantingkeyirangshikexianghubaochiliuchi(yue1.8mi)dejuli,danshifouyougongyinglianweicantingtigongxiangyingdeshicai?zairucidishangzuolvdeqingkuangxia,tamenshifoukeyiyingli?zhizaoyexuyaodiaozhenggongchangsheshi,yibianranggongrenzhijianbaochijiaoyuandejuli。daduoshugongchangnenggouzaimeiyouhendashengchanlisunshideqingkuangxiashiyingxindeguiding。danzaizheixiecanguanhegongchangdeyuangongjiangruheshangban?tamenhuidachenggonggongqichehuoguidaojiaotongma?neixieweigongchangtigongheyunshulingjiandegongyingshangzenmeban?qiyeyinggaicongshenmeshihoukaishiyaoqiuyuangonghuidaogongsishangbanni?

彩票平台zheixiewentidoumeiyoujiandandedaan。zuizhong,guojia、zhou、difanggejilingdaorendouxuyaogenjuhuifujingjibutongbufendefengxianyushouyijinxingquanheng。zaimeiguo,ruguoyigezhoufugongfuchandesuduguokuai,kaishichuxiandaliangdeganran,qitazhoushifouyinggaizuduanrenmenkuazhouyidongni?zheijiukenengrangwentibiandejishou。

彩票平台fuxuedehaochuyouhenduo,yinggaibeiyouxiankaolv。daxingtiyujiyulehuodongkenenghenzhangyiduanshijianneidoubuhuihuifuzhengchang,xianchangguanzhongdailaidejingjishouyiyuganranchuanbodefengxianwufaxiangtibinglun。qitahuodong,lirujiaohuihuodonghuojishirenzaichangbianguankandegaozhongzuqiubisai,zeshuyuzhongjiandidai。

彩票平台haiyouyigehennanjisuandeyinsu: renxing。youxierenbuyuanyichumen,jibianzhengfushuozheishikeyide。lingwaiyixierenzewanquanxiangfan,renweizhengfushiguodujinshen,yushikaishiweibeiguize。lingdaorenxuyaorenzhenkaolvzaizheifangmianruhequdepingheng。

结语

meilindahecaipiaopingtaicongxiaojiuzhidao,diercishijiedazhanshicaipiaopingtaifumuneiyidairenjinglidejuedingxingshike,yingxiangletamendeyisheng。tongyang,xinguanfeiyan——diyigexiandaidaliuxingbing——yejiangzhongxindingyicaipiaopingtaizheigeshidai。jingliguozheige“1haoxiandaidaliuxingbing”derenyongyuandoubuhuiwangjita。renmenzaidangxiazhengzaijinglidetongku,heneixiezaijinhoujinianlirengjiangchixuganshoudaodetongku,zenmemiaoshudoubuweiguo。

这次大流行病给低收入者和贫困人群造成的沉重代价,是梅琳达和彩票平台特别关切的问题。这种疾病对贫困社区和少数族裔的伤害尤其大。同样,经济停摆对低收入群体和少数族裔的工薪阶层造成的影响也是最严重的。决策者需要确保随着国家的重新开放,经济复苏不会加剧不平等现象的恶化。

彩票平台tongshi,shijiegeguozhengzaiqixinxielidahaozheichangzhanyi,zheirangcaipiaopingtaishenweiganpei。meiyitian,caipiaopingtaidouzaiyukexuejiamen、zhiyaoqiyedeceomenyijizhengfudelingdaorenmenjinxingcaipiaopingtai,xiwangqianmiantandaodeneixiechuangxinjiejuefangannenggouzaoriwenshi。meiyitian,douyoutaiduodeyingxiongrenwuzhidejingyang,youqishineixiefenzhanzaiyixiandeyihugongzuozhemen。dangshijiezuizhongxuanbu1haoxiandaidaliuxingbingjieshushi,caipiaopingtaiyinggaiduitamensuoyourendaoyishengganxie。

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zhongguolingxiandecaijingkejixinxicaipiaopingtaitigongshang。guanzhuweixingongzhonghao: taimeiti(id: taimeiti), zhizaiweichuangxin、chuangye、chuangzaorenqun,tigongzuigaoxiao、zuizhuanye,zuijujiazhidexinxicaipiaopingtaipingtai,hexiangguandezhiyeyuzibencaipiaopingtai。caipiaopingtaiyongyouxingyeneizuigaozhiliangdeneirong、zuozhe(yijianlingxiu)jichanpinxian,tongguolianjiezuijuchuangzaolidechuangxin、chuangyejibiangezhe,dazaozhongguozuidadexianshangyingxianglishequn。

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