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独家最全解密: 全球新冠疫苗竞跑大冲刺 | 钛媒体封面·五月刊

摘要: 科学界从首次公布新冠病毒基因组序列,到审批数款候选疫苗,短短几个月全球多国就纷纷进入了临床试验。这可以说是人类抗击传染病的历史新纪录。近日,随着临床实验的深入,中美英等各国也都开始接近最后冲刺阶段。

钛媒体App注: 在新冠肺炎全球大流行的严峻形势下,世界各国纷纷对疫苗研发加码,浩浩荡荡地开启了一场有关新冠病毒疫苗的研发竞赛,这既可以说是一场科研实力的竞争,也可以说是一场综合国力的较量。但说到底,依然是人类命运一体下,各国希望尽全力尽快解决这场突发灾难的共同努力。

shijieweishengzuzhitongjibiaoming,muqian(jiezhi5yue15ri)quanqiufanweineiyiyou118gezhenduixinguanfeiyandehouxuanyimiaoyanjiuxiangmudengjizaice,baokuozhongguo、meiguo、jianada、yingguo、deguo、xinjiapodenglaizi16geguojiadedingjiankeyantuandui、shangqianmingkexuejiadouzairiyijiyedijijicanyuqizhong,shubaiyimeijingejiezibenyeyichiyuanyimiaoxiangmu。

根据世卫组织和中国国家卫健委的说法,目前全球公认和权威的划分法,新冠肺炎疫苗被分为了五种设计路线: 核酸疫苗(mRNA疫苗、DNA疫苗)、重组基因工程(蛋白重组)疫苗、灭活疫苗、减毒流感病毒载体疫苗、腺病毒载体疫苗。

各国研究机构和科研人员都根据自身情况做了不同选择,相关进展也时刻牵动全球目光。钛媒体从可靠渠道获悉,中国由陈薇院士牵头的新冠疫苗第一期临床实验108个志愿者结果已经完全出来,数据结果相对乐观。但也有海外消息称牛津大学的疫苗实验阶段性成果并不乐观,引发争议;就在这两天,美国Moderna团队也称该疫苗在I期人体临床试验中具有 “可喜” 的结果。

yimiaojinzhanjiujingruhe?wudazhongleigeyouhetedian,kekaoxingruhepanduan?keyishuo,congxingyerenshidaoputonggongzhong,douduigeguoxinguanyimiaoyanfajinzhan、anquanxingdengwentibeijiaguanzhu,benqi【taimeitifengmian·wuyuekan】yi《quanqiuxinguanyimiaojingpao》weiti,xiwangtongguoduixinguanyimiaonandian、yimiaolinchuangshiyanliuchenghequanqiuliuganyimiaojingsaiqingkuangdengdeguangfanlejieheshendujiexi,changshiwanchengduizheichangxinguanbingduyimiaoquanqiujingsaidezhishipuji。

美国约翰斯·霍普金斯大学发布的实时统计数据显示,截至北京时间5月21日,全球累计确诊新冠肺炎病例超500万,累计死亡32.8万例。英国著名病毒学家彼得·皮奥特(Peter Piot)在亲身经历新冠病毒感染后写到: “彩票平台认为,让这场(新冠疫情)危机退出的唯一策略是,在全球范围内推出安全的疫苗。”

疫苗被认为是抵御新冠病毒全球大流行的终极科技武器,疫苗的研发成为当务之急。这也是有科学依据和历史渊源的。人类有史以来,疫苗就是人类战胜传染病的里程碑。从某种意义上来说,也是人类不断同疾病和自然灾害斗争的重要节点。

zuoweiyiliaolingyuzhongbijiaoxindeyigejishu,yimiaojiangbingyuanweishengwu(ruxijun、bingdudeng)jiqidaixiechanwu,jingguorengongjiandu、miehuohuoliyongjiyingongchengdengfangfa,youdaojitichanshengteyixing、zhudonghebaohuxingsuzhumianyi,congernenggouyufang/zhiliaochuanranxingjibing。

彩票平台yingguoyishengaidehua·zhanna(edward jenner,beichengwei“mianyixuezhifu”(the father of immunology))zaijinxingduonianyanjiuhoufaxian,renbeihuanyouniudoudeniuganranhoujiunenghuodeduitianhuademianyili,zaicijingyanqifaxia,tafamingleyimiaojiezhong。zheiyeshirenleilishishangdiyigexiandaiyimiao。1980nian,shiweizuzhixuanbu,quanqiuyixiaomieletianhua,shizhichengweishougeyushishangjuejiderenleichuanranbing。eryimiao,jiushirenleiyuzheichangchuanranbingdouzhengzhongzuiweizhongyaodelishichengguo。

zheiyeshiweihexinguanbingduzaiquanqiumanyanzhishi,geguodouyaozhengduoyimiaoyanfadezhudongquan。

新冠疫苗之难

zheicixinguanbingdukuaisumanyan,henduorenkenengzhuyidaolehaiwai“quntimianyi”deshuofa,jitongguoquntiziranganranhuodekangtilaishixian“quntimianyi”,gaishuofamuqianyiranchongmanzhengyi。suiranrutaimeitizaijinnianeryuedefengmianwenzhang《wanzhengfupanxinguanbingdukuosanlian,beijuhuokebimian | taimeiti·fengmian》zhongmingquezhichu,muqianxinguanfeiyanhuanzhe,zaiyimiaohetexiaoyaodouhaimeiyouchengshudeqingkuangxia,dequedouzhinengkaozishenmianyinengli,dankexuejiedaduoyiyougongshi,zhenzhengyaonengconggenbenshangkongzhixinguanbingdumanyan,huifuzhengchangzhixu,yiranyaoyikaoxinguanyimiaodeyanfahedaguimopuji。

有研究发现,位于新冠病毒最外层,像一个个凸起的皇冠的刺突糖蛋白,就是感染人体的罪魁祸首。冠状病毒从鼻腔等黏膜细胞中进入,与人体内的细胞膜进行融合,侵害体内的免疫系统。而新冠疫苗,就是使用含有抗原蛋白但失去感染力的病毒作为疫苗的抗原,或利用生产能够让免疫系统识别的抗原蛋白的关键基因,通过基因工程的方式制备抗原。

彩票平台zheigedanbaishibingdujinruxibaohouwufafanzhi,duirentibugouchengweixie。yinci,yimiaojiushijiangzheiyidanbaidairurentidemianyixitong,rangmianyixitongrenshizheizhongbingdu,jinerchanshengkangti。xuyaoqiangdiaodeshi,zheilisuozhideshizaitiyimiaojinrurentifangshi,bingfeisuoyouyimiaodoushirucijinrurentiqukangjibingdu。erqie,teyixingkangtichuxianzhishiyimiaoyouxiaodebiyaofeichongfentiaojian。youshihouxueqingzhongyekeyijiancedaokangti。 

zongdelaishuo,ruguodazhongdoujiezhongxinguanyimiao,jiangshidequntiganranfabingdegailvxianzhujiangdi,getichanshengmianyinengli。

tongchang,yigeyimiaocongyanfadaoshangshi,zhishaoyaojingguo8nianshenzhi20duonianmanzhangdeyanfalicheng。erxinguanfeiyanyimiaodeyanfasuduyijingshiqiansuoweiyou,danjuliyimiaoyanfachenggongdaozhengshituixingshangshi,rengranhaiyouhenzhangyiduanshijian。

彩票平台shiweizuzhizongganshitandesai(dr.tedros)zai3yuedidelixingjizhehuishangbiaoshi,xinguanfeiyanyimiaodeyanzhizhishaohaixuyao12zhi18geyue。meiguoguojiaguominzhenghechuanranbingyanjiusuosuozhangandongni·fuqi(anthony fauci)ciqianyecengbiaoshi,jibianxinguanyimiaodechuqianquanshiyanjinzhanshunli,juliqidaguimoyingyongyexuyaoyinianbanshijian。

(图片来源:<a target=彩票平台_彩票平台排行-【首充包赔】

(图片来源:彩票平台_彩票平台排行-【首充包赔】

yanfaxinyimiaoweishenmeyaozheimezhangdeshijian?

主要缘于研发设计、检测效果和疫苗生产三方面的难度。

首先是前期研发设计。科研机构想要研发疫苗,先要对病毒本身足够了解,才能“有的放矢”。

xinyimiaoshouxianxuyaokeyantuanduizaishiyanshizhongfenlibingdu,tuidaochujiyinxulie,peiyuxindeduzhu。jishixianzaiyouxindedanbaizhikeshihuaxianweijingyijiqitajishudejinbu,yexuyaohenzhangshijiancaikeyidedaoduzhuhuomubiaojiyin。ranhou,dedaodehouxuanduzhuhemubiaojiyinxuliexuyaosongdaoyanfajigoubaopizhibeihouxuanyimiaoxulie。

其次是疫苗测试流程漫长。彩票平台当在实验室研制完新冠疫苗(候选)之后,还需要经过动物试验、人体临床试验过程,这一系列试验过程需要很长时间。

彩票平台wanchengquanbulinchuangshiyanyibanjiuyaohaoshizhishao3-8nian,youdeshenzhizhangda10nianyishang。meiqilinchuangshiyandousheyouyanmideanquanxingjiance、yangedezhongzhibiaozhun,meigeyimiaodoukenengyinweidabudaoyushemudehuoyuqiyaoqiuzailinchuangqijianbeijiaoting,shenzhibeizhongzhi。

ruguoyiqieshunli,yimiaohaixuyaodengdaijinyibudeyanjiuhejianguanxuke,caikenenghuishangshi。

最后,在真实场景中,疫苗生产是个成本密集和高风险的领域。一个好的疫苗不仅要安全高效,还要制造工艺稳定、廉价易得、便于存储运输。

1955nian,meiguofashengleyiciyanzhongyimiaoshijian——keteyimiaoshijian(cutter incident),keteyimiaoshijiankeyishuoshimeiguolishishangzuiyanzhongdezhiyaozainanzhiyi。zheiyishijianrangquanqiuduiyimiaoshengchanliuchengbiaozhundoutigaoleyigedangci。

彩票平台1954nian4yue,meiguobingduxuejiaqiaonasi·suoerke(jonas salk)suolingdaodetuanduichenggongyanzhichumiehuojisuihuizhiyanyimiao,jisuoerkeyimiao,zaimeiguojiazhoukateshiyanshishengchan,daguimoshangshihoubujiu,faxianyimiaoyingongyiquexiandaozhihuobingdumeiyoubeiwanquanshamie(miehuobuchedi),zaiyimiaozhongbaohanshaoliangdechuanranxingsv40bingdu,dikanglefuermalindeqinshi。zuizhong,zheicishijianrang4wanmingertongyinciganran,zuizhong200mingtanhuan,10rensiwang。

彩票平台jinguanketeyimiaoshijianbingmeiyouzuzhisuoerkeyimiaochengweimeiguozhuliudejisuihuizhiyanyimiao,danhouxudefalvsusonghepeichangshenkediyingxianglemeiguodeyimiaojianguanzhidu。youguanfangmianhenkuaigaijinleyimiaodeshengchanguizhang。haiyinrulelingmindugenggaodeanquanceshi,binggaijinlejiludefangfa,fangzhicuowubeiyangai。

综上所述,在目前的疫苗生产整个流程中,多国都有严格的相关法律规范,因此很难让疫苗生产时间大幅缩短。

疫苗在实验室中研发(图片来源:<a target=彩票平台_彩票平台排行-【首充包赔】

实验室研发疫苗过程(图片来源:彩票平台_彩票平台排行-【首充包赔】

彩票平台renleibunengweibuxianzhi,shixianzhidaonazhongbingduhuishixiayichangdaliuxingdeyuanxiong,suoyihenduozhenduixinguanbingduyimiaosuozuodegongzuo,dabufendoushizhongxinjianliliucheng。huanyanzhi,bukenengzaiyizhongxinxingchuanranbingchuxiandetongyishijian,jiunengmashangkandaoyouduiyingdebingduyimiaozhijiechenggongshangshi。

danxiangbizhiqiandechuantongyimiaokaifalaishuo,yixiecaiyongxinxinggongyidexinguanbingduyimiaozhixuyaozhidaobingduhesuanxuliejiukeyikaishiyanfa,raoguoletiwaidaliangpeiyangbingdudezhuyaopingjing。yimiaoyanfaheshengchansududuirenleideyiyi,cikedagaishibuyaneryude。

jinguanruci,daomuqianweizhi,buguanshizhongguojunshikexueyuanqiantoudezhongzuxianbingduzaitiyimiao,haishimeiguoyanfadernaxinguanbingduyimiao,doumeiyouwanchenglinchuangshiyan。huanjuhuashuo,meiyizhongluxiandouyoushibaidekeneng。

清华大学医学院张林琦教授在接受钛媒体App专访时表示,因为疫苗研发是一个科学性、探索性很强的科研项目,所以,科学家要保持科学的精神,然后在比较与鉴别条件下,尽快研发可行性、安全性的新冠疫苗,这个过程是非常重要的。

新冠疫苗研发的五种设计路线和五个阶段

yinci,heshinengyanzhichunengdaguimoshiyongdehuopixinguanbingduyimiao,qujueyuzhenggeliuchengzhongmeigebuzhoudewanchengdu,yijibutongshejiluxiandeshijixiaoguo。

根据世卫组织报告显示,疫苗研发需要经过这几个阶段: 临床前研究、申报临床、临床试验机构申请、注册临床试验、I期临床试验、Ⅱ期临床试验、Ⅲ期临床试验、疫苗上市、疫苗生产,大致可以分为五个阶段,22个步骤:

1、qianqisheji

2、dongwushiyan

3、linchuangshiyaniqi,lejieyimiaochubuanquanxing。

彩票平台4、linchuangshiyaniiqi,quedingmianyichengxuhemianyijiliang。

5、linchuangshiyaniiiqi,gengdafanweijiezhongshiyanbingpinggufuzuoyong,xuyaochaoguo1000mingzhiyuanzhe,zuiduanxuyao3-5geyue。

目前,在新冠肺炎疫苗的研发上,全球顶尖的研究团队基本都已经进入临床试验Ⅰ、Ⅱ期。其中,中美英团队进度更快。

1、第一阶段: 前期设计确定五大路线

彩票平台先看每个阶段的情况,第一个阶段的前期路线设计下,一共确定了五个路线。

zaiqianqishejijieduan,jiandanlaishuo,zheiyiguochengjiushiyaoyanzhengduzhudemianyiyuanxing,bingtongguogezhongjishuzhibeichuyimiao,zheiyiguochengdazhixuyao3zhoushijian。ranhou,yimiaojiukeyisongdaoduiyingdeshiyanjigoujinxinghuopi。

xiangbizhiqiandeyimiaokaifalaishuo,xinguanbingduyimiaozhixuyaozhidaobingduhesuanxuliejiukeyikaishiyanfa,raoguoletiwaidaliangpeiyangbingdudezhuyaopingjing。

在疫苗设计方面,根据世卫组织和国家卫健委的说法,新冠肺炎疫苗分为这五种疫苗设计路线: 核酸疫苗(mRNA疫苗、DNA疫苗)、重组基因工程(蛋白重组)疫苗、灭活疫苗、减毒流感病毒载体疫苗、腺病毒载体疫苗。

中国已经支持了5个路线的新冠病毒疫苗研发计划,目前都在有序推进中。

  • 首先是核酸疫苗。

彩票平台zheishiyizhongxianjinyoushimaodeyimiaoyanfajishu。fenweimrna(xinshihetanghesuan)yimiaohedna(tuoyanghetanghesuan)yimiao,zheileiyimiaoshijiangbianmakangyuandanbaidernahuodnapianduanzhijiedaorurentixibaonei,zhushehounengshixibaochanshengbingdudeqizhongyizhongzhuyaokangyuandanbai,congerjifamianyifanying。qizhong,meiguodiyigejinrulinchuangshiyandexinguanbingduyimiaomrna-1273shimrna(xinshihetanghesuan)yimiao,shuyuhesuanyimiaodeyizhong。erzuixinjinrulinchuangshiyandeino-4800shiyikuandnayimiao。yinci,taimeitizaixiamiandefenleibiaoge(tuyi)zhongmingquequfenmrnayimiaohednayimiao。

  • 第二种是重组基因工程疫苗,又称蛋白重组疫苗。

彩票平台zheishijiangxinguanbingdudebufengongnengjiyinzaixibaohuoweishengwuzhongdaliangbiaoda,jingguochunhuahouzhibeideyimiao。caipiaopingtaishuxideyigan、hpvyimiaodeng,jiushicaiyongzhongzudanbaijishukaifabingchenggongshangshide。

彩票平台zhongzudanbaiyimiaoyunyongjiyingongchengzhongzujishu,tongguoxijunhuojiaomubiaodabingduwaiqiaozhongmianyiyuanxingjiaoqiangdedanbai,youdaojitidemianyifanying。

彩票平台gailuxianyiqishiyuguimohuashengchanxiyinlezuiduotuanduidexuanze。genjutaimeitidebuwanquantongji,muqianzhongzudanbaishixinguanhouxuanyimiaozhongcaiyongzuiduodeyimiaoleixing。

彩票平台yigsklianhekunshilandaxuezhengzaiyanfadedezhongzudanbaiyimiaoweili,qicaiyongde“fenziqian”jishu,hebingdudanbaijiehesuoxingchengdeqianheduotaikeyibeitichunbingyongyuyimiaodekuaisuzhibei。zheiyijishucengyongyulinchuangqianjieduandeliugan、mersdengbingduyimiao,muqianzhengyongyukaifaxinguanbingduyimiao。ershenzhenshimianyijiyinzhiliaoyanjiuyuantuanduiyanfadeliangkuanzhongzudanbaiyimiaomuqianyijinrulelinchuangdongwushiyanjieduan,yujizai5yuemowancheng i/ii qirentilinchuangshiyan。

  • 第三和第四种是减毒流感病毒载体疫苗(流感减毒活疫苗)和灭活疫苗。

zheishizuichuantongdeyimiaoyanfaluxian,yingyonglishiyoujiu,youdaliangchengshuchanpin,caipiaopingtaishuzhidejihui、jiagan、kuangquanyimiaodengdoushuyucilei。gaijishulujingdexinguanbingduyimiaoxiangmuzhishaoyou9gezhengzaijinxingzhong。

彩票平台youyuzheiliangzhongyimiaojishushitongguobuduanzaichuandaizhongzhaodaoyichuanxinxiwendingyounengbaozhengqikangyuanxingdeduzhu,yinciyanfazhouqizhang,jiezoujiaoweihuanman,bingqieshuliangshao,yincitaimeitizaitubiaozhonganzhaoshiweizuzhifenleifangshi,jiangliangleiyimiaojinxinglehuizongbiaoshi。

  • 第五种是病毒载体疫苗。

qiyuanlishiliyongkexuejiakeyizhangkongdehuobingdu(biruxianbingdu)weizaiti,jiangmubiaobingyuanti(biruxinguanbingdu)debaohuxingkangyuanjiyincharuzaitibingdudejiyinzuzhong,bingshizhigaoxiaobiaodakangyuandanbai,gaochundudeweihaifengxianjididezaitibingdubeizhushedaotinei,huiyoudaokangtishengcheng,congerrentijiechuxinguanbingdujiubuhuiyinqiyanzhongdejibingle。

gaijishulujinghaoshijiaozhang,duizaitidexuanze、caozuoheshengchandejishuyaoqiuhengao;suiran30duonianqianjiutichulegainian,queshihenxinqieposhouzhuipengderemenjishu,youchenggonganlishangshiyezhengshiletadekekaoxing。genjutaimeititongjixianshi,muqianzhishaoyou16gezaiyanxinguanyimiaocaiyongzheiyijishulujing。

qizhong,zuiweiguanzhudeshichenweiyuanshilingxiandetuandui,yijisufangshijinxingxinguanbingduyimiaoyanfa,chengweiquanqiuzuikuaijinrulinchuangshiyandeyimiaozhiyi。guoneihaiyouzhejiangpukangshengwu、disanjunyidaxue、shamendaxuedengduojiayanjiujigouyexuanbujiangyujinqituijinlinchuang。yingguoniujindaxue、meiguoyiyaojutouqiangshenggongsidebingduzaitiyimiaoxiangmu,yejihuazainianneiqidonglinchuangshiyan。

总的来说,技术路线都是正常无误的,大部分已逐步启动临床试验,个别团队进展更快。

2、第二阶段: 动物实验已有首个结果

今年4月,全球首个新冠疫苗动物实验研究结果已经公布,来自中国医科院。

zaiyimiaoyanfadedierjieduandongwushiyan,shizhizaijingguo63tiandeyanfaheshenpizhihou,yimiaoyaojingguoshiyanshixiaoshuhuolingzhangleidongwudeshiyan。

zhongguogongchengyuanyuanshiwangjunzhiyuanshizaisanyuedijiucenggongkaijieshao,caipiaopingtaiguo5dajishufangxiangyimiaozongtijinzhanshunli,diyipiquedingde9xiangrenwudouyiwanchengdongwuyanjiudabufengongzuo。dabufenyanfatuandui4yuefendounengwanchenglinchuangqianyanjiu,bingzhubuqidonglinchuangshiyan。

彩票平台4yue12ri,zhongguoyixuekexueyuanqinchuantuanduilingxianzaiyuyinbenlunwenpingtaibiorxivshangchuanyikuanyoukexingzhongweishengwuzaiyandexinguanmiehuoyimiaopicovacc(keerlaifu)dongwushiyanshuju。jieguoxianshi,gaiyimiaokezaixiaoshu、dashuhefeirenleilingzhangleidongwu(henghehou)zhongyoudaoteyixingzhonghekangti,zheixiekangtiyouxiaozhonghele10gedaibiaoxingxinguanbingduduzhu。yanjiubingbiaoming,congdongwushiyanguochenglaishuo,zhongguoyanfadeyimiaoshianquande。gailunwenyu5yue6rizhengshidengshangdingjikexueqikan《science》zazhi。

3、第三、四阶段: 人体临床试验I-Ⅱ期,中美英领先

到了第三步,就已经是最关键的一步 —— 人体临床试验,目前中美英已经有个别科研团队进入了这个阶段。

彩票平台muqian,xinguanyimiaozairentidelinchuangshiyan(anquanxingceshi)guochengzhuyaofenweisanqi:

qizhong,iqilinchuangshiyanzhongdianyaoguanchayimiaoshiyongdeanquanxing,zhuyaoshitongguoshaoshuyiganjiankangzhiyuanzhezuoweishoushizhelaiqueding,tongguorentiduiyimiaobutongjiliangdenaishou,lailejieyimiaodeanquanxing。jizhouhou,ruguoyimiaomeiyouchuxianzhongdadeanquanwenti,jiukeyikuodayangbenlianghemubiaorenqun,kaizhaniiqilinchuangshiyan。eriiqishiyanmudeshiweileshiyimiaozairenqunzhongdechubudeyouxiaoxingheanquanxingdejiehe,bingqiequedingyigemianyichengxuhemianyijiliang。

zailinchuangshiyanzhong,yimiaoyaozunxunyixiabuzhou: jiezhong1ji-chanshengkangti-caixuejiance-jiezhong2ji-kangtishuipingshenggao-caixuejiance-jiemang

tongchangqingkuangxia,congjiliangjiaodulaikan,huixiandadijiliangde,quedinganquanxinghouzaiwanggaojiliangda。jishishi i qi,yedeshizheimezuo。congnianlingzujiaodu,xianchengrenzujiezhong,ranhouzailaorenzu,ranhouzaiqingshaonian、ertongshenzhiyingyouerzu(butongyimiaomianxiangdenianlingduixiangbutong,houxuxuyaoshijutiqingkuangxuanzexuyaojinxingyanjiudemubiaorenqun)

youyuiqiheiiqideshiyanrenyuandoushitongguojiankangzhejinxingmujide,zhinengquedingyimiaodeanquanxing,erduiyudazhongzuiweiguanxindeyimiaoyouxiaoxing,zexuyaoiiiqirentilinchuangshiyanlaiqueren。zheiyiguochengxuyaoyangbenlianggengdadehuanzhexinxi,yibandechuanranbingyaoguanchadaoyigeliuxingzhouqi,caikeyiquedingyiganrenqundebaohulv。genjuweijianweideshuofa,zheiyishiyanzhaomurenshuguimojibendoushihaojiqian,shenzhiyaoshangwanren。

如果III期临床试验都通过的话,还需要世卫组织对其进行批准,并有相关科学依据,最终才可以批准上市。

事实上,由于这一流程过于漫长,很可能要疫情结束后才会发布有效疫苗。但随着新冠疫情全球大流行,人们不希望等待太久,甚至美国总统特朗普(Donald Trump)都亲自催促疫苗的研发时间,希望可以尽快完成并投入。

据世卫组织数据统计,全球有8款候选疫苗进入临床阶段,以国籍划分,中国占4款,美国(含德国)占其三,英国占其一。

其中,中国已有3种疫苗进入 II 期临床阶段,分别是: 中国工程院院士陈薇团队的腺病毒载体疫苗,已完成 I 期临床试验受试者的接种工作,正在进行 II 期临床研究,有望5月份揭盲;中国生物武汉生物制品研究所和中国科学院武汉病毒研究所联合申请的灭活疫苗,已进入 II 期临床研究;北京科兴中维生物技术有限公司研制的灭活疫苗,I/II 期合并的临床研究于4月16日在江苏省徐州市睢宁县启动,目前正在进行试验中。

4yue28ri,guoyaojituanzhongguoshengwubeijingshengwuzhipinyanjiusuoyanfadexinguanmiehuoyimiaohuodeguojiayaojianjulinchuangshiyanpijian。

另外,在5月15日,国家卫健委副主任曾益新表示,除了这四款世卫组织备案的疫苗外,还有一项中国医学科学院医学科学研究所(医科院昆明所)的灭活疫苗已获国家药监局批准。但由于钛媒体App并未查询到该疫苗在世卫组织的备案信息,这一灭活疫苗也并没有更多公开资料,因此本文中并未统计该疫苗。曾益新透露,目前参与5个疫苗项目临床试验共有2575名志愿者,目前没有收到“重大不良反应”报告,如果一切顺利,以上项目将在今年7月陆续完成二期临床试验。

彩票平台zhongguojikongzhongxinzhurengaofujieshoucgtncaifangshizhongguochuyuxinguanyimiaoyanfadeqianyan,jinnian9yuefenkenenghuiyouxinguanyimiaohuodejinjishiyongshouquanpizhun,daomingnianchu,dajiajiukeyijiandaoyongyujiankangrenqundeyimiaole。

而美国进入人体临床试验阶段的三款疫苗分别是: 美国国家过敏和传染病研究所(NIAID)和莫德纳(Moderna)合作的mRNA-1273、INOVIO(伊诺维奥制药)公司的INO-4800、美国制药巨头辉瑞(Pfizer)和德国生物科技公司BioNTech合作研发的mRNA 疫苗(BNT162),已在德国获批头两期临床试验。

值得一提的是,NIAID和莫德纳研发的mRNA新冠病毒疫苗mRNA-1273,跳过了动物试验过程,3月16日开启I期人体临床试验。根据宾西法尼亚大学医学院张洪涛教授的说法,他们利用之前走同一技术路线的疫苗动物实验数据作为安全性支持,这次没有做动物实验,而是直接进入人体试验。

这一冒险方式,或将大大缩短研发时期,但有效性仍待考证。

zhanglinqijiaoshouduitaimeitibiaoshi,jinguanmodenacaiyongzheizhongteshuzhengceheshishifangfa,danwulunruhe,xinguanyimiaozuizhongdouyaoluodaorentishangpinggu,zheifangmiandeanquanxinghemianyiyuanxingshishifenzhongyaode。

5yue18riwan,modenafabudiyijieduanzhongqiyangxingshuju,xianshigaiyimiaoanquanqienaishouxinglianghao,kechanshengmianyifanying,weiyidebuliyingxiangshizhusheyimiaodeyimingzhiyuanzheshoubeifahonghesuantong。

彩票平台modenagongsiceosidifen·bansaier(stephane bancel)biaoshi,gaiyimiaodedaguimolinchuangshiyan(zhideshi iii qi)yujijiangyujinnian7yuekaizhan。yimiaozuizaojiangyuqiutiankaishipiliangshengchan,yujiweilainianchanliangnenggoudadao10yizhiji。

meiguodedierzhongjinrurentilinchuangdeyimiaoshiino-4800——jiyudna(tuoyanghetanghesuan)yaowupingtaikaifadexinguanyimiao,shishengwuzhiyaogongsiinoviozaishengdiyagedeshiyanshiyanfade。inovio zai4yue29rixuanbu,gaigongsidexinguanfeiyandnayimiaoino-4800yiwanchengshoushizhezhaomu,zonggong40mingjiankangzhiyuanzhejiezhonglediyijiyimiao。zhongqimianyifanyingheanquanxingpinggujieguoyujijiangzailiuyuedigongbu。

zhideyitideshi,ju《niuyueshibao》debaodao,zheiliangjiagongsizaixinguanyimiaozhongsuoshiyongdejishu,ciqiancongweishengchanguopizhunyongyulinchuangdeyimiao,gengbuyongshuokeyigongyeshengchandeyimiaole。

彩票平台chulemodena、inoviowai,5yue5ri,meiguozhiyaoshanghuiruihedeguoshengwukejigongsibiotechgongsilianhexuanbu,huiruiyanfadebnt162xinguanbingduyimiaoxiangmuyikaishijinxingdi i/ii qirentilinchuangshiyan。diyipicanyuzheyizaimeiguojieshouzhushe,deguodediyipishiyanyushangzhouwancheng。julejie,diyipicanyuzheyizaimeiguojieshouzhushe,deguodediyipishiyanyushangzhouwancheng。zheiliangjiagongsihaibiaoshi,ruguoshiyanzhengmingqianquanxingheyouxiaoxing,yimiaoyoukenengzainiandiqianzaimeishengchan2000wanyimiaozhiji,mingnianchannengkedashangyijiguimo。zheiyiweizhe,bnt162youkenengchengweimeiguoshoupixinguanbingduyimiaozhiyi。

zhideyitideshi,caipiaopingtaiguofuxingyiyaoyijingyubiontechqiandingxukexieyi,biontechshouquanqikongguzigongsifuxingyiyaochanyezaiquyuneidujiakaifa、shangyehuajiyuqizhuanyoudemrnajishupingtaiyanfade、zhenduicovid-19deyimiaochanpin。danmuqianfuxingyiyaohaiweizaizhongguoquyukaizhanlinchuangshiyan,duiyuzhongguoheshikaishilinchuangshiyan,fuxingyiyaofangmianzaisiyuedijieshoucaifangshicheng,“zuoweibiontechzhongguohezuohuoban,caipiaopingtaixiwangweilainengnulijiakuaigaiyimiaozaizhongguozhankailinchuangshiyan”。

特朗普在5月15日的白宫新闻发布会上宣布了一项旨在加快疫苗研发的公私合作项目,名为“空间机战行动(Operation Warp Speed)”,旨在大大缩短疫苗的常规研发时间,目标系在今年年底前研发出数亿剂可供美国人使用的新冠疫苗。并正在考虑免费提供新冠病毒疫苗的可能性。

yingguoyou1zhiyimiaojinrulinchuangshiyan。zheizhongmingweivacuna chadox1(zuixingengmingweiazd1222)——niujindaxuezhannayanjiusuo(jenner institute)heasilikangzhiyaogongsi(astrazeneca)lianheyanfa,4yue23riyijingqidonglinchuangshiyan,muqiangaidaxueyijingxuanbu,youwangzai9yuefendizhunbeijiuxu,danzhongjianguochengquebuhuiduiwaitoulugengduo。

niujindaxueyixueyuanyuanzhangyuehan·beierbiaoshi,duizaiyinianneiyanfachuxinguanfeiyanyimiaoyouzhelianghaodeyuqi。

目前尚无证据表明,有国家率先进入了第五阶段,即Ⅲ期人体临床试验。

zhidezhuyideshi,yimiaoyanfacunzaiyidingdeshibaijilv,zhuyaoyuanyinshiyinyiqingjiezhi,erdaguimode iii qilinchuangshiyanwufachixuxiaqu。ciqianzaisarsshang,youyuyiqingyijingjieshu,zhuduosarsyimiaoyanjiudouzhejizailinchuangshiyanguochengzhong,zuihouwurenyanzhichusarsyimiao。yinci,muqiandengjizaicedehouxuanyimiao,kenengweibinenggouzoudaozuihou。

张林琦在接受钛媒体专访时表示,由于全球新冠疫情处于平稳,符合 III 期试验条件的志愿者或将很难找到。因此,在最后一期大规模临床试验中,科研人员可能需要两种办法去解决它: 一个办法就是到国外去做临床三期,可能有公司或者研究人员已经在国外布局。另外一种办法是不在现场做,可以拿一些替代指标,比如这个疫苗能在体内诱导出比较好的保护性抗体,可以基于替代指标来有条件批准上市。但这一切就要跟监管部门沟通。

也正因临床Ⅲ期存在不确定性,目前,最乐观的说法是“个别疫苗希望能在9月获得紧急使用授权”,但这一说辞基本来自欧美制造厂商,尚未有官方团队敢放言为疫苗面世时间做担保。

彩票平台meiguomashengzhoulidaxueyixueyuanzhongshenjiaoshou、guojiyimiaoxuehuiqianrenzhuxilushanshangyuebiaoshi: “yimiaoyanfadeguanjianyinsuqujueyukexue、daguimoshengchanjishu、jianguanyijifengxianshouyibi。”

lushanrenwei,zaijianchiyimiaoyanfadetongshi,buyinggaibakongzhiyiqingdexiwangwanquanjituozaiyimiaoshang,yinweixuyaobuduandelinchuangyanzheng,shijianshanglaibuji,ezhixinguanyiqingzuizhongyaodeshouduan,haishiyaoyikaogonggongweishengxitong、yiliaotixiyijigelicuoshideng。

各国疫苗研发进展及制造厂商详情一览

yushiyanshijianxiangduiyingdeshi,liuganyimiaozhizaoshangquzhikeshu。

genjude2018nianquanqiuyimiaoshichangshujuxianshi,gsk(15%)、huirui(13%)、sainuofeibaside(12%)、moshadong(14%)sidajutouzhanjulequanqiuyimiaoshichangyibanyishang,qiediweinanyihandong。ertop5yimiaoxiliezhanjulequanqiuyimiaoshichangjin30%defene,top10yimiaoxiliechanpinzhanjuquan qiuyimiaoshichang39%defene。ciwai,riben、zhongguo、eluosiyeyouyixieshengchanshang,qichanpinzhixiaojibenguo。

图片来源@平安证券研究所

tupianlaiyuan@pinganzhengquanyanjiusuo

彩票平台dandangxinguanyiqingbaofazhihou,shijiedoujiangmuguangzhuanxiangyiyaolingyu,jiashangzhengfukaishiguanzhubingzhudaoyimiaoyanfahezijintouru,zheixieyaoqiziranbuhuicuoguozheiyihaojihui,fenfenxuanchengjinxingyimiaoshengchan。

根据钛媒体App的不完全统计,目前已有118个新冠候选疫苗项目已经在世卫组织官网上登记在册,8款疫苗已经进入人体临床试验,有部分项目因无法通过公开或专属信息来源确定其研发状态,尚无法完全确认。但大量疫苗研发企业都表示会在2020年内开始人体试验。

niuyuexinaishanyikanyixueyuandebingduxuejiafuluolian·kelamo(florian krammer)yuce,zaiweilaijizhounei,zhishaohaihuiyou20zhonghouxuanyimiaojinrulinchuangshiyan。

对此,钛媒体App编辑把上百个新冠候选疫苗的类型、研发进展、相关研究机构或公司等详情,制作成了以下这张表格,便于所有用户理解,并且更直观看到全球疫苗竞跑态势:

从钛媒体App上图也可得知,全球目前主要的疫苗制造商已涉及几十家企业和大学研究机构,覆盖全部五种新冠疫苗设计路线。

  • 核酸疫苗赛道制造商

美国独角兽公司莫德纳(Moderna)

modenashiyijiaweiyuboshidunmasazhusaizhoujianqiaodeshengwujishugongsi,zhuanmenzhiliyumrnayaowuyanjiuhekaifa,yiyanfagexinghuaaizhengyimiaoerwenming。gaigongsizai2015nianzhaikabingdubaofaqijian,yunihdekexuejiahezuo,huodecepidezizhu,yanfachuyizhongjiyurnadeyimiao,ranggengduorenshoudaomianyuganranfengxian。

彩票平台huaerjieribaoyu2yue25rishoucipilu,gaigongsiyijingshengchanchushougehouxuanbingduyimiaomrna-1273,bingsongzhiniaidyimiaoyanjiuzhongxin,jinxinglinchuangshiyan。xiangxuduoqitazhengzaikaifadexinguanbingduyimiaoyiyang,qizhizaixunlianmianyixitong,yichanshengshibiehezuduanbingduyongyujinrurenxibaodecitudanbaidekangti。

yuqitalinchuangshiyanzhongdeyimiaoliaofabutongdeshi,modenayanzhichudexinguanyimiaokeyongyuyufangxingzhiliao。zheiduiyuyiqinggaofengxiandiquderenmenlaishuoshigehaoxiaoxi。

德国公司BioNTech,携手复星加入新冠疫苗赛道

3yue17ri,deguoshengwujishujituanbiontechxuanbuyuzhongguofuxingyiyao(fosun pharma)dachengyixiangshezi1.35yimeiyuandehezuo,yikaifaxinguanyimiao。gaigongsibiaoshi,xindeyimiaomingchengweibnt162,zhengrushangwensuoyan,jiuzai5yue5ri,gaigongsixuanbubnt162xinguanbingduyimiaoxiangmuyikaishijinxingdi i/ii qirentilinchuangshiyan。

fuxingjiangduibiontechzuochu5000wanmeiyuandeguquantouzi,bingxiangzheijiazongbuweiyumeiyinci(mainz)degongsizaizhifu8500wanmeiyuan,yongzuoyimiaokaifaheshangyehuafeiyong。

彩票平台ruguobiontechdechubuceshizhengshilegaiyimiaoshianquande,bingqiekeyiyinfamianyifanying,neimegaigongsijiangyuzhongguodefuxing,yijioumeihezuohuoban,zaijinxinggengguangfandelinchuangshiyan。ciwai,biontechhaiyumeiguozhiyaogongsihuiruihezuoyanjiuguanzhuangbingdudeyanjiu,huiruiyijingyugaigongsihezuokaifaliuganyimiao。

DNA疫苗研发的另类公司Inovio

zheijiaweiyumeiguobinxifaniyazhoudeshengwuzhiyaogongsiinovio,zaixinguanyimiaozhongshiyongdejishuyuqitajingpinlveyoubutong,qishiyongdnalaidaitimrna,laizhizaohouxuanyimiao。

xinguanyiqingfashenghou,inovioshouxizhixingguanj. joseph kimboshizaibaigongjuxingdemeiguoguanzhuangbingdutebiegongzuozuhuiyishangshuo,gaigongsizaigaibingdudejiyinxuliefabuhoudesangexiaoshineibianshejileino-4800yimiao,yiduikangxinguanbingdu。

彩票平台ciwai,tahaixuanbuqigongsiyubeijingdeadvaccineshengwujishugongsidachenghezuo,jihuayouadvaccinegongsizaizhongguobingxingdiyijieduanlinchuangshiyan。

彩票平台xiangjiaoyumrnayimiao,dnayimiaogengjiazhuzhonganquanxing。yinweizheizhongfangfabuxuyaoguanlihuobingdu,suoyikenengbichuantongyimiaogenganquan、kaifasudugengkuai。

daomuqianweizhi,inovioyijingshengchanle3000jiyimiao,yongyuzaimeiguo,zhongguohehanguodengdihuanzhezhongjinxingrentilinchuangshiyan。

德国生物制药公司CureVac

modenadejingzhengduishou,zongbuweiyudeguodeshengwuzhiyaogongsicurevacxuanbu,gaigongsizaishiyanshineizhizaochulemrnayimiao,binghuodelecepi(chuangshirenweibierjimeilinda·gaicijijinhuideliuxingbingfangbeichuangxinlianmeng)dezizhu,jiangqiyingyongyuxinguanbingduyimiaojishudangzhong。guanfangbiaoshi,gaigongsixiwangzaijigeyueneijinxingrentilinchuangshiyan。

ciqianyouxiaoxicheng,meiguoshitucurevacjiangqiyanjiuzhuanyidaozhenggedaxiyang,danzuizhongoumengfangmianxiwangzaiciyazhu,jiangyimiaoyanfabaoliuzaiouzhoudiqu。

Applied DNA Sciences / Takis Biotech

zheijiazongbuweiyumeiguodeshengwuzhiyaogongsiapplied dna sciencesyu3yuexuanbu,qiyuyidalidetakis biotechjinxinghezuo,tigongzhenduixinguanfeiyandednahouxuanyimiao。liangjiagongsijihuazaibenyuedizhiqiantigongdongwuceshibanben。

Zydus Cadlia

zongbuweiyuyindudezhiyaogongsizydus cadilazai2yuefenxuanbu,gaigongsiyijingqidongleliangzhongkaifaxinguanbingduyimiaodefangfa。diyigeshishiyongshejichengyidanjinrurentineijiuhuichanshengguanzhuangbingdudanbaidednahuanyimiao。dierxiangshejiyichuanchulijiandudezhongzumazhenbingdu,jiangyoudaohuanzhetineidexinguanbingduchanshengteyixingkangti。

  • 蛋白重组新冠疫苗赛道制造商

葛兰素史克(GSK)

zuoweiquanqiuzuidadeyimiaoshengchanshangzhiyi,yingguozhiyaoshanggelansushike(gsk)weileyingduicicixinguanyiqing,xuanbuqiyuzhongguodesiyecaoshengwuzhiyaogongsihezuokaifayimiao。juxi,zhongguosanyecaoshengwuzhiyaoshiyijiaquanqiuxinglinchuangshiyanjieduandeshengwuzhiyaogongsi。

彩票平台genjuguanfangshuofa,jiezhugelansushikedeyufangjibingdaliuxingyimiaozuojipingtaijishu,liangjiagongsijiangyiqipinggusiyecaojiyudanbaizhideguanzhuangbingduyimiaohouxuanyaowu(covid-19 s-trimer)。

Altimmune

yujingzhengduishoubutong,zheijiaweiyumalilanzhoudegongsizhengzaikaifayizhongyimiao,gaiyimiaobeipensadaohuanzhedebizishang,erbushizhushedaotamendeshoubeishang,shuyubipenwushiliuganyimiao。

gaigongsizaieryuefenjiuxuanbuyijingwanchenglezhenduixinguanbingduyimiaodeshejiheyuanxingyanjiu,muqianzhengjiangqituijindongwushiyanherentishiyandeshengchan。

Generex生物技术

zhongguoyousijiagongsiyufoluolidazhoudegenerexqiandinglehetong,shiyonggaigongsizhuanyoudemianyijihuojishukaifayimiao。gongsidaibiaoshuo,tazuizaokenengzai6yuezhunbeihaojinxingrentishiyan。

牛津大学/ Advent Srl

彩票平台yinggainiujindaxuedekeyanrenyuanyizhizaiyanjiuzhenduimersdeyimiao,dangxinguanyiqingfashengzhihou,tamenxunsuzhenduixinguanbingduliangshendingzhileyizhongxindeyimiao。niujindaxueyimiaoxuejiaoshousarah gilbertzhouliuduitaiwushibaobiaoshi,tayou80%dexinxinxiangxinqituanduidexinguanyimiaonenggouzouxiao,bingyouwangzai9yuediqianzhunbeijiuxu。ciqianpubianshuofashiyimiaotongchangxuyaoshuniandekaifashijian,erxinguanyimiaokaifashijianzuikuaiyekenengxuyao12dao18geyue。ergilbertbiaoshi,gaituanduiyimiaoderentishiyanjiangzaiweilailiangzhouneikaishi。

  • 腺病毒载体疫苗赛道制造商

中国康希诺公司(CanSino Biologics)

shishishang,xianbingduzaitiyimiaoshizhiyixianbingduzuoweizaiti,jiangbaohuxingkangyuanjiyinzhongzudaoxianbingduyimiaojiyinzhong,shiyongnengbiaodabaohuxingkangyuanjiyindezhongzuxianbingduzhichengdeyimiao。

erchenglijinshiyiniandeshengwuzhiyaogongsikangxinuoshengwugufenxuanbu,qigongsizhizaochuxinguanhouxuanyaowu,beichengweiad5-ncov,junshikexueyuanjunshiyixueyanjiuyuanshengwugongchengyanjiusuoshikangxinuoyanzhiyimiaodelianhetuandui。

彩票平台tamenhezuoyanfadezhongzuxinxingxinguanbingduyimiao(xianbingduzaiti)yihuodelejianguanpizhun,jinglidabianhedongwushiyanzhihou,zhengshijinrurentilinchuangshiyanjieduan。xinde1qilinchuangshiyanjiangzaizhongguowuhan18zhi60suidejiankangchengnianrenzhongjinxing,zheishizhongguodiyigejinrulinchuangshiyandexinguanyimiao。genjuzhongguolinchuangshiyandengjichufabudexinxi,yanjiurenyuanjihuajiang108mingcanyuzhefenweisanzu,yijieshoubutongjiliangdeyimiao。

kangxinuogongsicheng,linchuangqianjieguobiaominggaiyimiaokezaidongwumoxingzhongyoudaoqiangliedemianyifanying,bingjuyoulianghaodeanquanxing。

  • 基于病毒载体的疫苗制造商

赛诺菲

彩票平台sainuofei(sanofi)shimuqianquanqiuyimiaofenejiaogaodeshengwuyiyaogongsizhiyi,zi2004nianyilai,qigongsiyizhiyubardahezuo,yingduidaliuxing,baokuokangjisarsdeng。

muqiangaigongsiyiyanfachuxinguanbingduyimiao,zheishejijiangguanzhuangbingdurnadeyibufenyuwuhaibingdudeyichuanwuzhijiaohuan。sainuofeixiwanggaihouxuanyimiaokeyizailiugeyueneiduidongwujinxingceshi。renticeshikenenghuizai2021niandemougeshihoukaishi。

强生

qiangshenggongsizhengzaiyubardajinxinghezuo,yiyizhongkangaibolabingdudeyimiaozuoweilaiyanfazhenduicovid-19deyimiao。zaizhengfujigoudezizhuxia,gaigongsidejihuashishibingdushihuo,shengchanchuyizhongnenggouchufamianyifanyingerbuhuiyinqiganrandeyimiao。gaigongsishangweifabuyouguankaifashijianbiaoderenhexinxi。

美国GeoVax实验室,与武汉企业BravoVax携手抗疫

彩票平台zongbuweiyuyatelandadegeovaxxuanbu,qigongsiqianshuleyixiangshu,kaishiyuzhongguowuhandeyaowuzhizaoshangbravovaxhezuokaifayimiao。genjuyixiangshu,bravaxshoudaogeovaxdehouxuanyimiaohou,jiangfuzeyimiaodeceshiheshengchan,tongshiyuzhongguogonggongweishenghejianguanbumenzhijieduijie。

zhideguanzhudeshi,geovaxdeyimiaozaiti(mva)debingdujichuyibaochi50duoniandeanquanjilu。dangqiangaigongsijujiaozaihiv,zhaikabingdu,chuxuerebingduhenvejideyufangxingyimiaoshang,yijizhenduimanxingyixingganyanganranheduozhongaizhengdezhiliaoxingyimiaodeng。

  • 一家试图减弱活的新冠病毒的公司: Codagenix

zheijiaweiyumeiguoniuyuedeshengwujishugongsicodagenix,zhengzaiyuyinduxueqingyanjiusuohezuo,gongtongkaifazhenduixinguanbingdudejianduhuoyimiao。codagenixbingweishiyongrelihuohuaxueyaopindengdunxingliliangshasibingdu,ershishiyong“quyouhua”celvejiangbingducaozongweikeyifuzhidanbuhuiyinqijibingdebingdu。

yinduxueqingyanjiusuobiaoshi,gaiyanjiushideqijiangzaiyindufuzekuodaguimo。codagenixxiwangjinnianchunjizhunbeihaojinxingdongwushiyandehouxuanyimiao,bingzaijinnianxiatianjinxingrentishiyan。

综上,随着数款候选疫苗相继进入临床试验,中美两国被认为是全球疫苗竞赛中颇具竞争力的参与者。

彩票平台qinghuadaxueyixueyuanyuanzhang,zhongguokexueyuanyuanshidongchen: “zhongmeiliangguoyinggaishizuiweibeiwaijiekanhaode(yimiaoyanfaguojia)。zheigeshihouzhongmeiliangguoyinggaichengdanqiduishijiewenmingdeyizhongzeren。”

彩票平台dongchenjieshicheng,yifangmian,meiguozhenggeyiliaoziyuan、zhengtiyanfashilibijiaoqiang。xianzaizhongguomanmankaishinuli,danshigenmeiguohaiyouyidingchaju。lingwai,zhongguozhenzhengzuokeyandeyishengshaoyixie。zaimeiguo,yiyuanzhongyoudaliangdeyishikexuejia,yibianzaikanbing,yibianzuokeyan,erzhongguodeyisheng,juedaduoshushijiandouzaikanbing,zuokeyandepingtaihetiaojianshaoxianyouxiebuzu。

彩票平台dandongchenyetongshiqiangdiao,suizhezhongguojingjidebuduanfazhan,yixueshuipingdebuduantigao,zheixiewentihenkenenghuizaiweilaidedaojiejue。 

事实上,中国的科学家从首次向世界公布新冠病毒基因组序列,到审批数款候选疫苗,短短几个月时间全球就进入临床试验,中国已经创造了抗击传染病历史的新纪录。

彩票平台zaizheichangyubingdudejiaoliangzhong,quanqiukeyanrenyuanzhengxieshounuliweirenleizhanyidazaoyoulidewuqi。

dongchenbiaoshi: “caipiaopingtaipaokaiguojiadejiexian,minzudejiexian,zhenzhengjiangxinguanbingduzuoweiyigequanrenleimianduidewenti,jinxinghenhaodecaipiaopingtaiyuhezuo,jiangjishujinxingfenxiangyudatong。caipiaopingtaixianzaizhengjiejuehenduoyiqingjieshuyihoudeyixiemianduideququanqiuhuawenti,yimiaoyanfajishujiangshiyigekeyichangshidefangxiang。”

彩票平台buguo,zaiyimiaoyanfashang,“jingsai”yicihuoxuzhinengbiaodachurenleiduikangbingdushifenmiaobizhengdejinpogan,erbunengbiaodachuquanrenleizaikangjiyiqingzhongbiaoxianchude“xieshougongjin”dejuexin。zhengrushijieweishengzuzhifayanrenmagelite·halisi(margaret harris)suoyan: muqiancaipiaopingtai(deyimiaoyanfa)bingbucunzaijingzhengguanxi,ershibicixianghuhezuo,yizhanshengduirenleijiankangweihaijudadebingdu。xianzaicaipiaopingtaikandaodajiagongyousilu,gongyongxiangfa,gongyongxinxi,zheinenggoubangzhucaipiaopingtaizhenzhengzhanshengxinguanbingdu。

(本文首发钛媒体App,作者 | 林志佳,编辑 | 赵宇航。本文在公开发布之前已经过多位疫苗领域专家评议,他们向钛媒体提供了众多宝贵意见,这里对他们的支持和贡献表示特别感谢。)

cankaoziliao:

[1] 《yimiaodeshishi: congtianhuazhichangdaoyimiaozhishang》. rang-fulangsuowa·salvzuo/zhu.  songbijun/yi. zhongguoshehuikexuechubanshe

[2] 《tamenyingdangxingzou》.daiwei•m.aoxinsiji/zhu. yangxi/yi. qinghuadaxuechubanshe(201509)

彩票平台[3] huanqiushibao(global times)(2020).catchbio. 

[4] lianxian(wired). megan molteni. 《everything you need to know about coronavirus vaccines》. from  

[5] nature reviews drug discovery. 《the covid-19 vaccine development landscape》. from 

[6] phoenix satellite televison.

彩票平台[7] guojiayaojianjuweibo. 

[8] 《kexue》(science): ‘finally, a virus got me.’ scientist who fought ebola and hiv reflects on facing death from covid-19. from  

[9] zhonghuarenmingongheguoyimiaoguanlifa. (2019). retrieved 30 april 2020, from

配图链接: Royalty-free stock photo from
https://www.uab.edu/news/research/item/11203-uab-will-test-a-covid-19-vaccine-candidate-created-by-altimmune-inc

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